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Coordenadas : 37.3349 ° N 122.0090 ° W37°20′06″N 122°00′32″W /  / 37.3349; -122.0090

Apple Inc. es una empresa de tecnología multinacional estadounidense con sede en Cupertino, California , que diseña, desarrolla y vende electrónica de consumo , software de computadora y servicios en línea . Se considera una de las cinco grandes empresas de la industria de tecnología de la información de EE . UU. , Junto con Amazon , Google , Microsoft y Facebook . [8] [9] [10] Además de ser una de las empresas de teléfonos inteligentes más populares del mundo, junto con Samsung Electronicsy Xiaomi . [11] Y también es la empresa de tabletas más popular del mundo. [12]

Apple fue fundada por Steve Jobs , Steve Wozniak y Ronald Wayne en abril de 1976 para desarrollar y vender la computadora personal Apple I de Wozniak , aunque Wayne vendió su parte a Jobs y Wozniak en 12 días. Se incorporó como Apple Computer, Inc. , en enero de 1977, y las ventas de sus computadoras, incluida la Apple II , crecieron rápidamente.

Jobs y Wozniak contrataron a un equipo de diseñadores de computadoras y comenzaron una línea de producción en el garaje de Jobs. Apple se hizo pública en 1980 con un éxito financiero instantáneo. Durante los años siguientes, Apple envió nuevas computadoras con innovadoras interfaces gráficas de usuario , como la Macintosh original en 1984, y los anuncios publicitarios de Apple para sus productos recibieron elogios de la crítica generalizados. Sin embargo, el alto precio de sus productos y la biblioteca de aplicaciones limitada causaron problemas, al igual que las luchas de poder entre los ejecutivos. En 1985, Wozniak dejó Apple amigablemente y siguió siendo un empleado honorario, [13] mientras que Jobs renunció para fundar NeXT , llevándose a algunos compañeros de trabajo de Apple con él. [14]

A medida que el mercado de las computadoras personales se expandió y evolucionó a lo largo de la década de 1990, Apple perdió una participación de mercado considerable frente al duopolio de menor precio de Microsoft Windows en clones de PC Intel . La junta reclutó al CEO Gil Amelio para lo que sería un intento de 500 días para rehabilitar la empresa con problemas financieros, reformándola con despidos, reestructuración ejecutiva y enfoque en el producto. Condujo a Apple a comprar NeXT en 1997, resolviendo una estrategia fallida del sistema operativo y trayendo de vuelta a Jobs.

Jobs recuperó el estatus de liderazgo y se convirtió en CEO en septiembre de 1997. Apple rápidamente volvió a ser rentable gracias a la revitalizante campaña " Piensa diferente ", reconstruyendo el estatus de Apple con el lanzamiento del iMac y el iPod , la apertura de una cadena minorista de Apple Stores en 2001 y la adquisición de numerosas empresas para ampliar la cartera de software. La compañía pasó a llamarse Apple Inc. en 2007, lo que refleja un enfoque hacia la electrónica de consumo, y lanzó el iPhone con elogios de la crítica y el éxito financiero. En agosto de 2011, Jobs dimitió como director ejecutivo debido a complicaciones de salud y Tim Cook se convirtió en el nuevo director general. Dos meses después, Jobs murió, marcando el final de una era para la empresa. En junio de 2019,Jony Ive , CDO de Apple , dejó la compañía para comenzar su propia empresa, pero declaró que trabajaría con Apple como su cliente principal.

Los ingresos anuales mundiales de Apple totalizaron $ 274.5 mil millones para el año fiscal 2020 . Apple es la empresa de tecnología más grande del mundo por ingresos y desde enero de 2021, la empresa más valiosa del mundo . Apple es el cuarto proveedor de PC más grande del mundo por unidades de ventas a enero de 2021. [15] También es el cuarto fabricante de teléfonos inteligentes más grande del mundo. [16] [17] En agosto de 2018, Apple se convirtió en la primera empresa estadounidense que cotiza en bolsa valorada en más de 1 billón de dólares [18] [19] y solo dos años después, en agosto de 2020, se convirtió en la primera empresa estadounidense de 2 billones de dólares. [20] [21] Apple emplea a 147.000 empleados a tiempo completo[4] y mantiene 511 tiendas minoristas en 25 países a partir de 2021. [22] Opera iTunes Store, que es el minorista de música más grande del mundo. En enero de 2021, más de 1,650 millones de productos Apple se utilizan activamente en todo el mundo. [23] La compañía también tiene un alto nivel de lealtad a la marca y está clasificada como la marca más valiosa del mundo . Sin embargo, Apple recibe críticas significativas con respecto a las prácticas laborales de sus contratistas, sus prácticas ambientales y prácticas comerciales poco éticas, incluido el comportamiento anticompetitivo , así como el origen de los materiales originales.

Historia

1976-1984: fundación e incorporación

En 1976, Steve Jobs cofundó Apple en la casa de sus padres en Crist Drive en Los Altos, California . [24] Aunque se cree ampliamente que la empresa se fundó en el garaje de la casa, el cofundador de Apple, Steve Wozniak, lo llamó "un poco un mito". [25] Jobs y Wozniak, sin embargo, trasladaron algunas operaciones al garaje cuando el dormitorio se llenó de gente. [26]
El primer producto de Apple , el Apple I , diseñado por Steve Wozniak, se vendió como una placa de circuito ensamblada y carecía de características básicas como teclado, monitor y carcasa. El propietario de esta unidad agregó un teclado y una caja de madera.
El Apple II Plus , presentado en 1979, diseñado principalmente por Wozniak

Apple Computer Company fue fundada el 1 de abril de 1976 por Steve Jobs , Steve Wozniak y Ronald Wayne como sociedad comercial . [24] [27] El primer producto de la compañía es el Apple I , una computadora diseñada y construida a mano en su totalidad por Wozniak. [28] [29] Para financiar su creación, Jobs vendió su único medio de transporte motorizado, un VW Microbus , por unos cientos de dólares, y Wozniak vendió su calculadora HP-65 por 500 dólares (equivalente a 2246 dólares en 2019). [30] Wozniak presentó el primer prototipo en el Homebrew Computer Club.en julio de 1976. [31] [32] El Apple I se vendió como una placa base con CPU , RAM y chips básicos de video textual, un concepto de kit básico que aún no se comercializaría como una computadora personal completa. [33] Salió a la venta poco después de su debut por 666,66 dólares (equivalente a 2.995 dólares en 2019). [34] [35] [36] [37] [38] : 180 Wozniak dijo más tarde que no estaba al tanto de la marca coincidente de la bestia en el número 666, y que se le ocurrió el precio porque le gustaba "repetir dígitos" . [39]

Apple Computer, Inc. se incorporó el 3 de enero de 1977, [40] [41] sin Wayne, que se había ido y había vendido su parte de la empresa a Jobs y Wozniak por 800 dólares sólo doce días después de haber cofundado Apple. [42] [43] El multimillonario Mike Markkula proporcionó experiencia empresarial esencial y financiación de 250.000 dólares (equivalente a 1.054.778 dólares en 2019) a Jobs y Wozniak durante la incorporación de Apple. [44] [45] Durante los primeros cinco años de operaciones, los ingresos crecieron exponencialmente, duplicándose aproximadamente cada cuatro meses. Entre septiembre de 1977 y septiembre de 1980, las ventas anuales aumentaron de $ 775.000 a $ 118 millones, una tasa de crecimiento anual promedio del 533%. [46][47]

El Apple II , también inventado por Wozniak, se presentó el 16 de abril de 1977 en la primera feria informática de la costa oeste . [48] Se diferencia de sus principales rivales, el TRS-80 y el Commodore PET , por su carácter gráfico en color basado en celdas y su arquitectura abierta . Si bien los primeros modelos de Apple II utilizan cintas de casete ordinarias como dispositivos de almacenamiento, fueron reemplazados por la introducción de un 5+Unidad de disquete de 14 pulgadase interfaz llamada Disk II en 1978. [49] [50] El Apple II fue elegido para ser la plataforma de escritorio para la primera " aplicación asesina " del mundo empresarial: VisiCalc , un programa de hoja de cálculo. lanzado en 1979. [49] VisiCalc creó un mercado comercial para el Apple II y dio a los usuarios domésticos una razón adicional para comprar un Apple II: la compatibilidad con la oficina. [49] Antes de VisiCalc, Apple había sido un competidor en tercer lugar distante de Commodore y Tandy . [51] [52]

A fines de la década de 1970, Apple tenía un equipo de diseñadores de computadoras y una línea de producción. La compañía presentó Apple III en mayo de 1980 en un intento por competir con IBM en el mercado de la informática empresarial y corporativa. [53] Jobs y varios empleados de Apple, incluido el experto en interfaz persona-computadora Jef Raskin , visitaron Xerox PARC en diciembre de 1979 para ver una demostración de Xerox Alto . Xerox otorgó a los ingenieros de Apple tres días de acceso a las instalaciones de PARC a cambio de la opción de comprar 100.000 acciones [ cita requerida ] (5,6 millones con ajuste divididoacciones al 30 de marzo de 2019 ) [41] de Apple al precio anterior a la OPI de $ 10 por acción. [54]

Jobs se convenció de inmediato de que todas las computadoras futuras utilizarían una interfaz gráfica de usuario ( GUI ) y comenzó el desarrollo de una GUI para Apple Lisa . [55] [56] En 1982, sin embargo, fue expulsado del equipo Lisa debido a luchas internas. Jobs luego se hizo cargo del proyecto informático de bajo costo de Wozniak y Raskin, el Macintosh , y lo redefinió como un sistema gráfico más barato y rápido que Lisa. [57] En 1983, Lisa se convirtió en la primera computadora personal vendida al público con una GUI, pero fue un fracaso comercial debido a su alto precio y títulos de software limitados, por lo que en 1985 se reutilizaría como Macintosh de gama alta y se descontinuaría en su segundo año. [58]

El 12 de diciembre de 1980, Apple (símbolo de cotización "AAPL") se hizo pública vendiendo 4,6 millones de acciones a $ 22 por acción ($ .39 por acción al ajustar las divisiones de acciones al 30 de marzo de 2019 ), [41] generando más de $ 100 millones. , que fue más capital que cualquier OPI desde Ford Motor Company en 1956. [59] Al final del día, se crearon 300 millonarios, a partir de un precio de las acciones de $ 29 por acción [60] y una capitalización de mercado de $ 1.778 mil millones. [59] [60]

1984-1991: éxito con Macintosh

La Macintosh , lanzada en 1984, es la primera computadora personal del mercado masivo que cuenta con una interfaz gráfica de usuario y un mouse integrales.

En 1984, Apple lanzó Macintosh, la primera computadora personal que se vendió sin un lenguaje de programación . [61] Su debut estuvo marcado por "1984" , un anuncio de televisión de 1,5 millones de dólares dirigido por Ridley Scott que se emitió durante el tercer trimestre del Super Bowl XVIII el 22 de enero de 1984. [62] Esto ahora es aclamado como un hito para Apple. éxito [63] y fue llamado una "obra maestra" por CNN [64] y uno de los mejores anuncios de televisión de todos los tiempos por TV Guide . [65] [66]

Las ventas de Macintosh fueron inicialmente buenas, pero comenzaron a disminuir drásticamente después de los primeros tres meses debido a su alto precio, baja velocidad y rango limitado de software disponible. [67] [68] [69] [70] : 195 A principios de 1985, esta caída de las ventas desencadenó una lucha de poder entre Steve Jobs y el director ejecutivo John Sculley , que había sido contratado dos años antes por Jobs [71] [72] utilizando el famosa frase, "¿Quieres vender agua azucarada por el resto de tu vida o venir conmigo y cambiar el mundo?" [73] Sculley decidió destituir a Jobs como director general de la división Macintosh y obtuvo el apoyo unánime de la junta directiva de Apple. [74] [71]

La junta directiva instruyó a Sculley para contener a Jobs y su capacidad para lanzar costosas incursiones en productos no probados. En lugar de someterse a la dirección de Sculley, Jobs intentó expulsarlo de su papel de liderazgo en Apple. [75] Informado por Jean-Louis Gassée , Sculley se enteró de que Jobs había estado intentando organizar un golpe y convocó una reunión ejecutiva de emergencia en la que el personal ejecutivo de Apple se puso del lado de Sculley y despojó a Jobs de todos los deberes operativos. [75] Jobs renunció a Apple en septiembre de 1985 y se llevó a varios empleados de Apple con él para fundar NeXT Inc. [76]Wozniak también había dejado su empleo activo en Apple a principios de 1985 para emprender otras empresas, expresando su frustración con el trato de Apple a la división Apple II y afirmando que la empresa había "ido en la dirección equivocada durante los últimos cinco años". [14] [13] [77] A pesar de las quejas de Wozniak, dejó la empresa de manera amistosa y tanto Jobs como Wozniak siguieron siendo accionistas de Apple. [78] Wozniak continúa representando a la compañía en eventos o entrevistas, [13] recibiendo un estipendio estimado en $ 120,000 por año para esta función. [38]

La perspectiva en Macintosh mejoró con la introducción de LaserWriter , la primera impresora láser PostScript a un precio razonable , y PageMaker , una de las primeras aplicaciones de autoedición lanzada en julio de 1985. [79] Se ha sugerido que la combinación de Macintosh, LaserWriter y PageMaker fue responsable de la creación del mercado de autoedición. [80] [se necesita una mejor fuente ]

El Macintosh Portable , lanzado en 1989, es el primer ordenador personal portátil Macintosh de Apple que funciona con baterías.

Después de la salida de Jobs y Wozniak, la línea de productos Macintosh experimentó un cambio constante de enfoque a puntos de precios más altos, la llamada "política de la derecha alta", nombrada así por la posición en un gráfico de precios frente a ganancias. Jobs había argumentado que la empresa debería producir productos destinados al mercado de consumo y cuyo objetivo era un precio de 1.000 dólares para el Macintosh, que no pudieron alcanzar. Los modelos más nuevos que se vendían a precios más altos ofrecían un mayor margen de beneficio y no parecían tener ningún efecto en las ventas totales, ya que los usuarios avanzados aprovechaban cada aumento de potencia. Aunque a algunos les preocupaba la posibilidad de salir del mercado con un precio, la política de la extrema derecha estaba en plena vigencia a mediados de la década de 1980, sobre todo debido al mantra de Jean-Louis Gassée de "cincuenta y cinco o morir",refiriéndose a los márgenes de beneficio del 55%del Macintosh II . [81] : 79–80 Vender Macintosh con márgenes de beneficio tan altos solo fue posible debido a su posición dominante en el mercado de la autoedición. [82]

Esta política comenzó a ser contraproducente en los últimos años de la década cuando aparecieron nuevos programas de autoedición en clones de PC que ofrecían algo o gran parte de la misma funcionalidad de Macintosh pero a precios mucho más bajos. La empresa perdió su monopolio en este mercado y ya había distanciado a muchos de su base de clientes consumidores originales que ya no podían pagar sus productos de alto precio. La temporada navideña de 1989 es la primera en la historia de la compañía en tener ventas en declive, lo que llevó a una caída del 20% en el precio de las acciones de Apple. [81] : 117-129 Durante este período, la relación entre Sculley y Gassée se deterioró, lo que llevó a Sculley a degradar efectivamente a Gassée en enero de 1990 al nombrar a Michael Spindler como eldirector de operaciones . [83] Gassée dejó la empresa ese mismo año. [84] En octubre de 1990, Apple introdujo tres modelos de menor costo, el Macintosh Classic , Macintosh LC y Macintosh IIsi , [85] todos los cuales registraron ventas significativas debido a la demanda reprimida.

En 1991, Apple presentó el PowerBook , reemplazando el Macintosh Portable "cargable" con un diseño que estableció la forma actual para casi todas las computadoras portátiles modernas. El mismo año, Apple presentó System 7 , una importante actualización del sistema operativo que agregó color a la interfaz e introdujo nuevas capacidades de red. Seguía siendo la base arquitectónica del Mac OS clásico . El éxito del PowerBook y otros productos generó un aumento de los ingresos. [86] Durante algún tiempo, Apple lo estaba haciendo increíblemente bien, introduciendo nuevos productos frescos y generando mayores ganancias en el proceso. La revista MacAddictnombró el período comprendido entre 1989 y 1991 como la "primera edad de oro" del Macintosh. [87]

Apple creía que la serie Apple II era demasiado cara de producir y le quitó las ventas al Macintosh de gama baja. [88] En octubre de 1990, Apple lanzó el Macintosh LC y comenzó los esfuerzos para promover esa computadora aconsejando al personal de soporte técnico del desarrollador que recomendara el desarrollo de aplicaciones para Macintosh en lugar de Apple II, y autorizando a los vendedores a dirigir a los consumidores hacia Macintosh y lejos de Apple II. . [89] El Apple IIe se suspendió en 1993. [90]

1991-1997: decadencia y reestructuración

El PenLite es el primer prototipo de un ordenador tableta de Apple. Creado en 1992, el proyecto fue diseñado para llevar Mac OS a una tableta, pero fue cancelado a favor de Newton . [91]

El éxito de los modelos de consumo de menor costo de Apple, especialmente el LC, también condujo a la canibalización de sus máquinas de mayor precio. Para abordar esto, la gerencia introdujo varias marcas nuevas, vendiendo máquinas en gran parte idénticas a diferentes puntos de precio dirigidas a diferentes mercados. Se trataba de la gama alta Quadra , la línea Centris de gama media y la serie Performa comercializada por el consumidor . Esto provocó una gran confusión en el mercado, ya que los clientes no entendían la diferencia entre los modelos. [92]

Apple también experimentó con varios otros productos dirigidos al consumidor que no tuvieron éxito durante la década de 1990, incluidas cámaras digitales , reproductores de audio de CD portátiles , parlantes , consolas de video , el servicio en línea eWorld y aparatos de televisión . También se invirtieron enormes recursos en la división de Newton, plagada de problemas, basada en las previsiones de mercado poco realistas de John Sculley. [ cita requerida ] En última instancia, ninguno de estos productos ayudó y la participación de mercado de Apple y los precios de las acciones continuaron cayendo. [ cita requerida ]

A lo largo de este período, Microsoft continuó ganando participación de mercado con Windows al enfocarse en entregar software a computadoras personales de bajo costo, mientras que Apple brindaba una experiencia rica pero costosa. [93] Apple se basó en altos márgenes de beneficio y nunca desarrolló una respuesta clara; en cambio, demandaron a Microsoft por usar una GUI similar a Apple Lisa en Apple Computer, Inc. contra Microsoft Corp. [94] La demanda se prolongó durante años antes de que finalmente fuera desestimada. En ese momento, una serie de fracasos importantes de productos y plazos incumplidos mancharon la reputación de Apple, y Sculley fue reemplazado como CEO por Michael Spindler . [95]

El Newton es el primer PDA de Apple que se lanza al mercado, así como uno de los primeros en la industria. Aunque fracasó financieramente en el momento de su lanzamiento, ayudó a allanar el camino para PalmPilot y el iPhone y iPad de Apple en el futuro.

A fines de la década de 1980, Apple estaba desarrollando plataformas alternativas al System 6, como A / UX y Pink . La plataforma System 6 en sí estaba desactualizada porque no se creó originalmente para realizar múltiples tareas. En la década de 1990, Apple se enfrentaba a la competencia de proveedores de OS / 2 y UNIX como Sun Microsystems . Los sistemas 6 y 7 tendrían que ser reemplazados por una nueva plataforma o reelaborados para que se ejecuten en hardware moderno. [96]

En 1994, Apple, IBM y Motorola formaron la alianza AIM con el objetivo de crear una nueva plataforma informática (la PowerPC Reference Platform ; PReP), que utilizaría hardware de IBM y Motorola junto con software de Apple. La alianza AIM esperaba que el desempeño de PReP y el software de Apple dejaran a la PC muy atrás y así contrarrestaran el monopolio de Microsoft. El mismo año, Apple presentó el Power Macintosh , el primero de muchos ordenadores Apple en utilizar el procesador PowerPC de Motorola . [97]

En 1996, Spindler fue reemplazado por Gil Amelio como director general. Contratado por su reputación como rehabilitador corporativo, Amelio realizó cambios profundos, incluidos despidos extensos y reducción de costos. [98] Después de numerosos intentos fallidos de modernizar Mac OS, primero con el proyecto Pink de 1988 y luego con Copland de 1994, Apple en 1997 compró NeXT para su sistema operativo NeXTSTEP y para traer de vuelta a Steve Jobs. [99] Apple estaba a solo unas semanas de la quiebra cuando Jobs regresó. [100]

1997-2007: retorno a la rentabilidad

Power Macintosh es una línea de computadoras personales de tipo estación de trabajo Apple Macintosh basadas en varios modelos de microprocesadores PowerPC , que se desarrollaron de 1994 a 2006.

La adquisición de NeXT se finalizó el 9 de febrero de 1997, [101] devolviendo a Jobs a Apple como asesor. El 9 de julio de 1997, Amelio fue destituido por la junta directiva después de supervisar un precio de acciones récord de tres años y pérdidas financieras paralizantes. Jobs actuó como director ejecutivo interino y comenzó a reestructurar la línea de productos de la empresa; fue durante este período que identificó el talento de diseño de Jonathan Ive , y la pareja trabajó en colaboración para reconstruir el estatus de Apple. [102]

En la Macworld Expo de agosto de 1997 en Boston, Jobs anunció que Apple se uniría a Microsoft para lanzar nuevas versiones de Microsoft Office para Macintosh, y que Microsoft había realizado una inversión de 150 millones de dólares en acciones de Apple sin derecho a voto. [103] El 10 de noviembre de 1997, Apple presentó el sitio web de la Apple Store , que estaba vinculado a una nueva estrategia de fabricación por encargo. [104] [105]

El 15 de agosto de 1998, Apple presentó una nueva computadora todo en uno que recuerda a la Macintosh 128K : la iMac . El equipo de diseño de iMac estaba dirigido por Ive, quien más tarde diseñaría el iPod y el iPhone . [106] [107] El iMac presentaba tecnología moderna y un diseño único, y vendió casi 800.000 unidades en sus primeros cinco meses. [108]

Alrededor de 1998, Apple completó numerosas adquisiciones para crear una cartera de software de producción digital para profesionales y consumidores. De estos, una transacción notable fue la adquisición por parte de Apple del proyecto de software Key Grip de Macromedia , lo que indica una expansión en el mercado de la edición de video digital . La venta fue el resultado de la decisión de Macromedia de centrarse únicamente en el software de desarrollo web. El producto, aún sin terminar en el momento de la venta, pasó a llamarse " Final Cut Pro " cuando se lanzó al mercado minorista en abril de 1999. [109] [110] El desarrollo de Key Grip también llevó a la liberación del consumidor por parte de Apple. producto de edición de vídeo iMovie en octubre de 1999. [111]A continuación, Apple adquirió con éxito la empresa alemana Astarte, que había desarrollado la tecnología de creación de DVD , así como los productos correspondientes y el equipo de ingeniería de Astarte en abril de 2000. La herramienta digital DVDirector de Astarte se transformó posteriormente en el producto de software DVD Studio Pro orientado a profesionales . Luego, Apple empleó la misma tecnología para crear iDVD para el mercado de consumo. [111] En julio de 2001, Apple adquirió Spruce Technologies, una plataforma de creación de DVD para PC, para incorporar su tecnología en la cartera en expansión de Apple de proyectos de video digital. [112] [113]

SoundJam MP , lanzado por Casady & Greene en 1998, pasó a llamarse " iTunes " cuando Apple lo compró en 2000. Los desarrolladores principales del software de biblioteca de música y reproductor MP3 se trasladaron a Apple como parte de la adquisición y simplificaron la interfaz de usuario de SoundJam, agregó. la capacidad de grabar CD, y eliminó su función de grabación y soporte de piel . [114] SoundJam fue la segunda opción de Apple para el núcleo del proyecto de software musical de Apple, originalmente con el nombre en código iMusic, [115] [116] detrás de Audion de Panic . [117]Apple no pudo concertar una reunión con Panic a tiempo para ser considerado plenamente, ya que este último se encontraba en medio de negociaciones similares con AOL . [117]

En 2002, Apple compró Nothing Real para su aplicación de composición digital avanzada Shake , [118] así como Emagic para la aplicación de productividad musical Logic . La compra de Emagic convirtió a Apple en el primer fabricante de computadoras en poseer una compañía de software musical. La adquisición fue seguida por el desarrollo de la aplicación GarageBand a nivel de consumidor de Apple . [119] El lanzamiento de iPhoto en el mismo año completó la suite iLife . [120]

Mac OS X , basado en NeXTSTEP , OPENSTEP y BSD Unix de NeXT , fue lanzado el 24 de marzo de 2001, después de varios años de desarrollo. Dirigido tanto a consumidores como a profesionales, Mac OS X tenía como objetivo combinar la estabilidad, confiabilidad y seguridad de Unix con la facilidad de uso que ofrece una interfaz de usuario revisada. Para ayudar a los usuarios a migrar desde Mac OS 9 , el nuevo sistema operativo permitió el uso de aplicaciones OS 9 dentro de Mac OS X a través del entorno clásico . [121]

El 19 de mayo de 2001, Apple abrió sus primeras tiendas minoristas homónimas oficiales en Virginia y California. [122] El 23 de octubre del mismo año, Apple presentó el reproductor de audio digital portátil iPod . El producto, que se vendió por primera vez el 10 de noviembre de 2001, tuvo un éxito fenomenal con más de 100 millones de unidades vendidas en seis años. [123] [124] En 2003, se introdujo iTunes Store de Apple . El servicio ofrecía descargas de música en línea por $ 0,99 la canción e integración con el iPod. ITunes Store se convirtió rápidamente en el líder del mercado de servicios de música en línea, con más de cinco mil millones de descargas al 19 de junio de 2008. [125] [126]Dos años más tarde, iTunes Store era el minorista de música más grande del mundo. [127] [128]

Transición de Intel y estabilidad financiera

La MacBook Pro , la primera computadora portátil de Apple con un microprocesador Intel , presentada en 2006.

En el discurso de apertura de la Conferencia Mundial de Desarrolladores el 6 de junio de 2005, Jobs anunció que Apple comenzaría a producir computadoras Mac basadas en Intel en 2006. [129] El 10 de enero de 2006, las nuevas MacBook Pro e iMac se convirtieron en las primeras computadoras Apple en usar CPU Intel Core Duo . El 7 de agosto de 2006, Apple hizo la transición a los chips Intel para toda la línea de productos Mac, más de un año antes de lo anunciado. [129] Las marcas Power Mac, iBook y PowerBook se retiraron durante la transición; el Mac Pro , MacBook , MacBook Pro y se convirtió en sus respectivos sucesores. [130] [131]El 29 de abril de 2009, The Wall Street Journal informó que Apple estaba creando su propio equipo de ingenieros para diseñar microchips. [132] Apple también introdujo Boot Camp en 2006 para ayudar a los usuarios a instalar Windows XP o Windows Vista en sus Macs Intel junto con Mac OS X. [133]

El éxito de Apple durante este período fue evidente en el precio de sus acciones . Entre principios de 2003 y 2006, el precio de las acciones de Apple aumentó más de diez veces, de alrededor de $ 6 por acción ( ajustada por división ) a más de $ 80. [134] Cuando Apple superó la capitalización de mercado de Dell en enero de 2006, [135] Jobs envió un correo electrónico a los empleados de Apple diciendo que el director ejecutivo de Dell, Michael Dell, debería comerse sus palabras. [136] Nueve años antes, Dell había dicho que si dirigía Apple "la cerraría y devolvería el dinero a los accionistas". [137]

Aunque la participación de Apple en el mercado de computadoras había crecido, se mantuvo muy por detrás de su competidor Microsoft Windows , representando alrededor del 8% de las computadoras de escritorio y portátiles en Estados Unidos. [ cuando? ] [ cita requerida ]

Desde 2001, el equipo de diseño de Apple ha abandonado progresivamente el uso de plásticos de colores translúcidos que se utilizaron por primera vez en el iMac G3 . Este cambio de diseño comenzó con el titanio -hecha PowerBook y fue seguido por el iBook blanco 's policarbonato estructura y el panel plano iMac . [138] [139]

2007-2011: éxito con los dispositivos móviles

IPhone recientemente anunciado en exhibición en la MacWorld Expo 2007

Durante su discurso de apertura en la Macworld Expo el 9 de enero de 2007, Jobs anunció que Apple Computer, Inc. se conocería a partir de entonces como "Apple Inc.", porque la compañía había cambiado su énfasis de las computadoras a la electrónica de consumo. [140] [141] Este evento también vio el anuncio del iPhone [142] [143] y el Apple TV . [144] [145] La empresa vendió 270.000 unidades de iPhone durante las primeras 30 horas de ventas, [146] y el dispositivo se denominó "un cambio de juego para la industria". [147] Apple lograría un éxito generalizado con su iPhone, iPod Touch y iPad.productos, que introdujeron innovaciones en teléfonos móviles , reproductores de música portátiles y computadoras personales, respectivamente. [148] Además, a principios de 2007, se registraron 800.000 usuarios de Final Cut Pro . [149]

En un artículo publicado en el sitio web de Apple el 6 de febrero de 2007, Jobs escribió que Apple estaría dispuesta a vender música en iTunes Store sin administración de derechos digitales (DRM) , permitiendo así que las pistas se reproduzcan en reproductores de terceros, si las discográficas estaría de acuerdo en dejar la tecnología. [150] El 2 de abril de 2007, Apple y EMI anunciaron conjuntamente la eliminación de la tecnología DRM del catálogo de EMI en la iTunes Store, a partir de mayo de 2007. [151] Otros sellos discográficos finalmente siguieron su ejemplo y Apple publicó un comunicado de prensa en enero de 2009. para anunciar que todas las canciones de iTunes Store están disponibles sin su FairPlay DRM. [152]

En julio de 2008, Apple lanzó la App Store para vender aplicaciones de terceros para iPhone y iPod Touch . [153] En un mes, la tienda vendió 60 millones de aplicaciones y registró un ingreso diario promedio de $ 1 millón, y Jobs especuló en agosto de 2008 que la App Store podría convertirse en un negocio de mil millones de dólares para Apple. [154] En octubre de 2008, Apple era el tercer proveedor de teléfonos móviles más grande del mundo debido a la popularidad del iPhone . [155]

El 16 de diciembre de 2008, Apple anunció que 2009 sería el último año en que la corporación asistiría a la Macworld Expo , después de más de 20 años de asistencia, y que el vicepresidente senior de marketing mundial de productos, Phil Schiller , pronunciaría el discurso de apertura de 2009 en su lugar. de los trabajos esperados. El comunicado de prensa oficial explicaba que Apple estaba "reduciendo" las ferias comerciales en general, incluidas Macworld Tokyo y Apple Expo en París , Francia , principalmente porque los enormes éxitos de las tiendas minoristas de Apple y el sitio web habían convertido las ferias comerciales en un canal promocional menor. . [156] [157]

El 14 de enero de 2009, Jobs anunció en un memorando interno que tomaría una licencia médica de seis meses de Apple hasta finales de junio de 2009 y pasaría el tiempo enfocándose en su salud. En el correo electrónico, Jobs declaró que "la curiosidad por mi salud personal sigue siendo una distracción no solo para mí y mi familia, sino también para todos los demás en Apple", y explicó que la pausa le permitiría a la empresa "concentrarse en entregar productos extraordinarios ". [158] Aunque Jobs estuvo ausente, Apple registró su mejor trimestre sin vacaciones (Q1 FY 2009) durante la recesión con ingresos de $ 8,16 mil millones y ganancias de $ 1,21 mil millones. [159] [160]

Después de años de especulaciones y múltiples "filtraciones" de los que se rumoreaba, Apple presentó un dispositivo multimedia de pantalla grande, similar a una tableta, conocido como iPad el 27 de enero de 2010. El iPad ejecutaba el mismo sistema operativo táctil que el iPhone y todas las aplicaciones de iPhone. eran compatibles con el iPad . Esto le dio al iPad un gran catálogo de aplicaciones en el lanzamiento, aunque tuvo muy poco tiempo de desarrollo antes del lanzamiento. Más tarde ese año, el 3 de abril de 2010, se lanzó el iPad en los EE. UU. Vendió más de 300.000 unidades en su primer día y 500.000 al final de la primera semana. [161] En mayo del mismo año, la capitalización de mercado de Apple superó a la de su competidor Microsoft por primera vez desde 1989. [162]

En junio de 2010, Apple lanzó el iPhone 4 , [163] [164] que introdujo videollamadas , multitarea y un nuevo diseño de acero inoxidable sin aislamiento que actuaba como antena del teléfono. Más tarde ese año, Apple volvió a actualizar su línea iPod de reproductores MP3 al presentar un iPod Nano multitáctil , un iPod Touch con FaceTime y un iPod Shuffle que recuperaron los botones de rueda de clic de generaciones anteriores. [165] [166] [167] También introdujo el Apple TV de segunda generación, más pequeño y económico, que permitía alquilar películas y programas. [168]

En octubre de 2010, las acciones de Apple alcanzaron un máximo histórico, eclipsando los $ 300 (~ $ 43 ajustados por división ). [169] Más tarde ese mes, Apple actualiza el MacBook Air portátil, iLife suite de aplicaciones, y dio a conocer Mac OS X Lion , [170] [171] la última versión con el nombre de Mac OS X . [ cita requerida ]

El 6 de enero de 2011, la compañía abrió su Mac App Store , una plataforma de distribución de software digital similar a la App Store de iOS. [172]

El 17 de enero de 2011, Jobs anunció en un memorando interno de Apple que tomaría otra licencia médica por un período indefinido para permitirle concentrarse en su salud. El director de operaciones, Tim Cook, asumió las operaciones diarias de Jobs en Apple, aunque Jobs seguiría estando "involucrado en las principales decisiones estratégicas". [173] Apple se convirtió en la marca de cara al consumidor más valiosa del mundo. [174] En junio de 2011, Jobs tomó sorprendentemente el escenario y presentó iCloud , un servicio de sincronización y almacenamiento en línea para música, fotos, archivos y software que reemplazó a MobileMe , el intento anterior de Apple de sincronizar contenido. [175] Este sería el último lanzamiento de producto al que asistiría Jobs antes de su muerte.

Junto a entidades similares como Atari y Cisco Systems , Apple apareció en el documental Something Ventured , que se estrenó en 2011 y exploró la era de tres décadas que condujo al establecimiento y dominio de Silicon Valley . [176] Se ha argumentado que Apple ha logrado tal eficiencia en su cadena de suministro que la empresa opera como un monopsonio (un comprador con muchos vendedores) y puede imponer condiciones a sus proveedores. [177] [178] [179] En julio de 2011, debido a la crisis del techo de la deuda estadounidense , las reservas financieras de Apple fueron brevemente mayores que las del gobierno de los Estados Unidos .[180]

El 24 de agosto de 2011, Jobs renunció a su puesto de CEO de Apple. [181] Fue reemplazado por Cook y Jobs se convirtió en el presidente de Apple. Apple no tenía un presidente en ese momento [182] y en su lugar tenía dos codirectores principales, Andrea Jung y Arthur D. Levinson , [183] que continuaron con esos títulos hasta que Levinson reemplazó a Jobs como presidente de la junta en noviembre después de que Jobs ' muerte. [184]

2011-presente: era post-empleo, liderazgo de Tim Cook

El 5 de octubre de 2011, Steve Jobs murió, marcando el final de una era para Apple. [185] [186] El primer anuncio de producto importante de Apple tras el fallecimiento de Jobs ocurrió el 19 de enero de 2012, cuando Phil Schiller de Apple presentó los libros de texto de iBook para iOS y iBook Author para Mac OS X en la ciudad de Nueva York. [187] Jobs declaró en la biografía "Jobs" que quería reinventar la industria de los libros de texto y la educación. [188]

De 2011 a 2012, Apple lanzó el iPhone 4S [189] [190] y el iPhone 5 , [191] [192] que incluían cámaras mejoradas, un asistente de software inteligente llamado Siri y datos sincronizados en la nube con iCloud; los iPads de tercera y cuarta generación, que incluían pantallas Retina ; [193] [194] [195] y el iPad Mini , que presentaba una pantalla de 7,9 pulgadas en contraste con la pantalla de 9,7 pulgadas del iPad. [196]Estos lanzamientos fueron exitosos, y el iPhone 5 (lanzado el 21 de septiembre de 2012) se convirtió en el mayor lanzamiento de iPhone de Apple con más de dos millones de pedidos anticipados [197] y ventas de tres millones de iPads en los tres días posteriores al lanzamiento del iPad Mini y la cuarta generación. iPad (lanzado el 3 de noviembre de 2012). [198] Apple también lanzó una MacBook Pro de 13 pulgadas de tercera generación con pantalla Retina y nuevas computadoras iMac y Mac Mini . [195] [196] [199]

El 20 de agosto de 2012, el aumento del precio de las acciones de Apple aumentó la capitalización de mercado de la compañía a un récord de $ 624 mil millones. Esto batió el récord no ajustado por inflación para la capitalización de mercado previamente establecido por Microsoft en 1999. [200] El 24 de agosto de 2012, un jurado de EE. UU. Dictaminó que Samsung debería pagar a Apple $ 1.05 mil millones (£ 665 millones) en daños en una demanda de propiedad intelectual. . [201] Samsung apeló la indemnización por daños, que se redujo en 450 millones de dólares [202] y concedió además la solicitud de Samsung de un nuevo juicio. [202]El 10 de noviembre de 2012, Apple confirmó un acuerdo global que desestimó todas las demandas existentes entre Apple y HTC hasta esa fecha, a favor de un acuerdo de licencia de diez años para las patentes actuales y futuras entre las dos compañías. [203] Se prevé que Apple ganará 280 millones de dólares al año con este acuerdo con HTC. [204]

Un correo electrónico previamente confidencial escrito por Jobs un año antes de su muerte se presentó durante los procedimientos de las demandas de Apple Inc. v. Samsung Electronics Co. y se puso a disposición del público a principios de abril de 2014. Con un asunto que dice "Top 100 - A, "el correo electrónico se envió sólo a los 100 empleados más antiguos de la empresa y describe la visión de Jobs del futuro de Apple Inc. en diez subtítulos. En particular, Jobs declara una "Guerra Santa con Google" para 2011 y programa un "nuevo campus" para 2015. [205]

En marzo de 2013, Apple presentó una patente para un sistema de realidad aumentada (AR) que puede identificar objetos en una transmisión de video en vivo y presentar la información correspondiente a estos objetos a través de una capa de información generada por computadora superpuesta sobre la imagen del mundo real. [206] La compañía también tomó varias decisiones de contratación de alto perfil en 2013. El 2 de julio de 2013, Apple reclutó a Paul Deneve , presidente belga y director ejecutivo de Yves Saint Laurent como vicepresidente que reportaba directamente a Tim Cook. [207] Un anuncio de mediados de octubre de 2013 reveló que la directora ejecutiva de Burberry , Angela Ahrendtsfue contratado como vicepresidente senior de Apple a mediados de 2014. Ahrendts supervisó anteriormente la estrategia digital de Burberry durante casi ocho años y, durante su mandato, las ventas aumentaron a alrededor de $ 3.2 mil millones y las acciones se triplicaron. [208] Ella renunció a Apple en 2019. [209]

Junto con el vicepresidente de Google, Vint Cerf, y el director ejecutivo de AT&T, Randall Stephenson , Cook asistió a una cumbre a puertas cerradas celebrada por el presidente Obama el 8 de agosto de 2013 con respecto a la vigilancia gubernamental e Internet a raíz del incidente de Edward Snowden NSA . [210] [211] El 4 de febrero de 2014, Cook se reunió con Abdullah Gül , presidente de Turquía , en Ankara para discutir la participación de la empresa en el proyecto Fatih . [212]

En el primer trimestre de 2014, Apple informó ventas de 51 millones de iPhones y 26 millones de iPads, convirtiéndose en récords de ventas trimestrales de todos los tiempos. También experimentó un aumento interanual significativo en las ventas de Mac. Esto se contrastó con una caída significativa en las ventas de iPod. [213] [214] En mayo de 2014, la empresa confirmó su intención de adquirir la empresa de audio de Dr. Dre y Jimmy Iovine , Beats Electronics, productora de la línea de auriculares y altavoces "Beats by Dr. Dre", y operadora de el servicio de transmisión de música Beats Music—Por $ 3 mil millones, y para vender sus productos a través de los puntos de venta y revendedores de Apple. Iovine creía que Beats siempre había "pertenecido" a Apple, ya que la compañía se inspiró en la "capacidad incomparable de Apple para casar la cultura y la tecnología". La adquisición fue la compra más grande en la historia de Apple. [215] [216]

Apple estuvo a la cabeza del informe anual Best Global Brands de Interbrand durante seis años consecutivos; 2013, [217] 2014, [218] 2015, [219] 2016, [220] 2017, [221] y 2018 con una valoración de $ 214,48 mil millones. [222]

En enero de 2016, se anunció que mil millones de dispositivos Apple estaban en uso activo en todo el mundo. [223] [224]

El 12 de mayo de 2016, Apple invirtió mil millones de dólares en DiDi , la empresa de alquiler de vehículos más grande de China. [225] [226] [227] The Information informó en octubre de 2016 que Apple había tomado un asiento en la junta directiva de Didi Chuxing, [228] una medida que James Vincent de The Verge especuló que sería una decisión estratégica de Apple para acercarse a la industria del automóvil, [229] en particular el interés declarado de Didi Chuxing por los coches autónomos. [230]

El 6 de junio de 2016, Fortune lanzó Fortune 500, su lista de empresas clasificadas según la generación de ingresos. En el último año fiscal (2015), Apple apareció en la lista como la principal empresa de tecnología. [231] Ocupó el tercer lugar, en general, con 233.000 millones de dólares en ingresos. [231] Esto representa un movimiento hacia arriba de dos puntos de la lista del año anterior. [231]

El 6 de abril de 2017, Apple lanzó Clips , una aplicación que permite a los usuarios de iPad y iPhone crear y editar videos cortos con texto, gráficos y efectos. La aplicación proporciona una forma de producir videos cortos para compartir con otros usuarios en la aplicación Mensajes, Instagram , Facebook y otras redes sociales . Apple también introdujo Live Titles for Clips que permite a los usuarios agregar subtítulos y títulos animados en vivo usando su voz. [232]

En mayo de 2017, Apple actualizó dos de los diseños de su sitio web. Su sitio web de relaciones públicas "Apple Press Info" se cambió a un sitio de "Apple Newsroom", con un mayor énfasis en las imágenes y, por lo tanto, una menor densidad de información, y combina comunicados de prensa, noticias y fotos. También se actualizó su descripción general de "Apple Leadership" de los ejecutivos de la compañía, agregando un diseño más simple con una imagen de encabezado prominente y campos de texto de dos columnas. 9to5Mac notó las similitudes de diseño con varias de las aplicaciones rediseñadas de Apple en iOS 10 , particularmente su software Apple Music and News . [233]

En junio de 2017, Apple anunció el HomePod , su altavoz inteligente destinado a competir con Sonos , Google Home y Amazon Echo . [234] Hacia finales de año, TechCrunch informó que Apple estaba adquiriendo Shazam , una empresa que presentó sus productos en la WWDC y que se especializa en el reconocimiento de música, televisión, cine y publicidad. [235] La adquisición se confirmó unos días después, supuestamente costando a Apple $ 400 millones, con informes de los medios señalando que la compra parecía un movimiento para adquirir datos y herramientas que refuerzan el servicio de transmisión de Apple Music . [236]La compra fue aprobada por la Unión Europea en septiembre de 2018. [237] [238]

También en junio de 2017, Apple nombró a Jamie Erlicht y Zack Van Amburg para dirigir la unidad de video mundial recién formada. En noviembre de 2017, Apple anunció que se diversificaría hacia una programación con guión original: una serie dramática protagonizada por Jennifer Aniston y Reese Witherspoon , y un reinicio de la serie de antología Amazing Stories con Steven Spielberg . [239] En junio de 2018, Apple firmó el acuerdo básico mínimo de Writer's Guild of America y Oprah Winfrey para una asociación de contenido de varios años. [240] [241] Las asociaciones adicionales para la serie original incluyen Sesame Workshop yDHX Media y su subsidiaria Peanuts Worldwide , así como una asociación con A24 para crear películas originales. [242] [243] [244] A partir de enero de 2019 , Apple ha pedido veintiuna series de televisión y una película. Hay cinco series en desarrollo en Apple.

El 27 de julio de 2017, Apple descontinuó las icónicas líneas de dispositivos iPod nano y iPod shuffle . [245]

En febrero de 2018, se informó que Apple estaba en conversaciones con los mineros para comprarles Cobalt directamente. [246]

El 5 de junio de 2018, Apple desaprobó OpenGL y OpenGL ES en todos los sistemas operativos e instó a los desarrolladores a usar Metal en su lugar. [247] En agosto de 2018, Apple compró Akonia Holographics para su lente de gafas de realidad aumentada . [248] [249] El 14 de febrero de 2019, Apple adquirió DataTiger para su tecnología de marketing digital. [250]

El 29 de enero de 2019, Apple informó su primera disminución de ingresos y ganancias en una década. [251] [252] [253] En febrero de 2019 compraron la empresa de computación conversacional PullString (anteriormente ToyTalk) [254] El 25 de julio de 2019, Apple e Intel anunciaron un acuerdo para que Apple adquiera el negocio de módems de teléfonos inteligentes de Intel Mobile Communications para Mil millones de dólares. [255]

El 30 de marzo de 2020, Apple adquirió el fabricante local de aplicaciones meteorológicas Dark Sky, por una suma no revelada, con la intención de descontinuar su aplicación original a fines de 2021. [256] [257] El 3 de abril de 2020, Apple adquirió Voysis, un Compañía con sede en Dublín centrada en la tecnología de voz digital de inteligencia artificial por una suma no revelada. [258] El 14 de mayo de 2020, Apple adquirió NextVR, una empresa de realidad virtual, con sede en Newport Beach, California . [259]

El 4 de agosto de 2020, Axios informó que Apple tenía un "interés serio" en comprar TikTok , [260] [261], aunque Apple lo negó más tarde. [262]

El 19 de agosto de 2020, el precio de las acciones de Apple superó brevemente los 467,77 dólares, lo que convirtió a Apple en la primera empresa estadounidense con una capitalización de mercado de 2 billones de dólares. [263]

El 2 de septiembre de 2020, Apple anunció las próximas funciones de iOS que se introducirán a finales de este año, lo que permitirá a los desarrolladores ofrecer a los clientes códigos de suscripción gratuitos o con descuento llamados "códigos de oferta". Los usuarios que operan con iOS 14 , iPadOS 14 y versiones posteriores fueron declarados elegibles para canjear los códigos de oferta en la App Store. Se dijo que la oferta se podía canjear a través de dos métodos, utilizando una URL de canje de código de una sola vez o la API presentCodeRedemptionSheet, si se implementa dentro de la aplicación. [264]

Para acelerar las entregas de dispositivos a los consumidores, Apple comenzó a enviar dispositivos directamente desde sus tiendas a partir de octubre de 2020. La compañía anunció el uso de su red de Apple Stores como centros de cumplimiento de facto para enviar productos directamente desde las tiendas a los clientes. [265]

El 10 de noviembre de 2020, los desarrolladores de Apple confirmó el lanzamiento de pegatinas con máscaras en los dispositivos iOS, que anteriormente fue rechazado por Apple alegando que la etiqueta de ser “referencias inapropiadas a la COVID-19 pandemia .” [266]

Transición de silicio de Apple

Durante su discurso de apertura anual de la WWDC el 22 de junio de 2020, Apple anunció que pasará la Mac de los procesadores Intel a procesadores desarrollados internamente. [267] Los analistas de la industria esperaban el anuncio, y se ha observado que las Mac con procesadores de Apple permitirían grandes aumentos en el rendimiento con respecto a los modelos actuales basados ​​en Intel. [268] El 10 de noviembre de 2020, MacBook Air, MacBook Pro y Mac Mini se convirtieron en los primeros dispositivos Mac con un procesador diseñado por Apple, el Apple M1 . [269]

Productos

Macintosh

Macintosh actualmente en producción:

  • iMac : computadora de escritorio todo en uno para el consumidor, presentada en 1998.
  • Mac Mini : computadora de escritorio para el consumidor, presentada en 2005.
  • MacBook Pro : portátil profesional, presentado en 2006.
  • Mac Pro : computadora de escritorio de estación de trabajo, presentada en 2006.
  • MacBook Air : portátil de consumo ultradelgado y ultraportátil, presentado en 2008.

Apple vende una variedad de accesorios de computadora para Mac, incluidos Pro Display XDR , Magic Mouse , Magic Trackpad y Magic Keyboard .

iPod

De izquierda a derecha: iPod Shuffle , iPod Nano , iPod Touch .

El 23 de octubre de 2001, Apple presentó el reproductor de música digital iPod . Desde entonces se han introducido varios modelos actualizados, y la marca iPod es ahora el líder del mercado en reproductores de música portátiles por un margen significativo. Se han enviado más de 390 millones de unidades a septiembre de 2015 . [270] Apple se ha asociado con Nike para ofrecer el Nike + iPod Sports Kit, que permite a los corredores sincronizar y controlar sus carreras con iTunes y el sitio web Nike +.

A fines de julio de 2017, Apple descontinuó sus modelos iPod Nano y iPod Shuffle , dejando solo el iPod Touch disponible para su compra. [271] [272] [273]

iPhone

El iPhone de primera generación , 3G , 4 , 5 , 5C y 5S a escala.

En la Macworld Conference & Expo en enero de 2007, Steve Jobs presentó el esperado iPhone [274] , una convergencia de un teléfono inteligente con acceso a Internet y un iPod. [275] El iPhone de primera generación fue lanzado el 29 de junio de 2007 por $ 499 (4 GB) y $ 599 (8 GB) con un contrato con AT&T . [276] El 5 de febrero de 2008, se actualizó para tener 16 GB de almacenamiento, además de los modelos de 8 GB y 4 GB. [277] Combinó un teléfono celular GSM y EDGE de cuatro bandas de 2.5G con funciones que se encuentran en dispositivos portátiles, ejecutando una versión reducida de OS X (apodado iPhone OS después del lanzamiento y luego renombrado a iOS ), con varias aplicaciones de Mac OS X como Safari y Mail . También incluye aplicaciones de panel y basadas en la web , como Google Maps y Weather. El iPhone cuenta con una pantalla táctil de 3,5 pulgadas (89 mm), Bluetooth y Wi-Fi (tanto "b" como "g"). [275]

Una segunda versión, el iPhone 3G , fue lanzada el 11 de julio de 2008, con un precio reducido de $ 199 para el modelo de 8 GB y $ 299 para el modelo de 16 GB. [278] Esta versión agregó soporte para redes 3G y navegación GPS asistida . La parte trasera plateada plana y el cuadrado grande de la antena del modelo original se eliminaron en favor de una parte trasera brillante, curvada en negro o blanco. Las capacidades del software se mejoraron con el lanzamiento de la App Store , que proporcionó aplicaciones compatibles con iPhone para descargar. El 24 de abril de 2009, la App Store [279] superó los mil millones de descargas. [280] El 8 de junio de 2009, Apple anunció el iPhone 3GS. Proporcionó una actualización incremental del dispositivo, incluidos componentes internos más rápidos, soporte para velocidades 3G más rápidas, capacidad de grabación de video y control de voz.

En la Conferencia Mundial de Desarrolladores (WWDC) del 7 de junio de 2010, Apple anunció el iPhone 4 rediseñado . [281] Presentaba una pantalla de 960 × 640, el procesador Apple A4 , un giroscopio para juegos mejorados, una cámara de 5MP con flash LED, cámara VGA frontal y videollamadas FaceTime . Poco después de su lanzamiento, los consumidores descubrieron problemas de recepción debido a la banda de acero inoxidable alrededor del borde del dispositivo, que también sirve como señal celular del teléfono y antena Wi-Fi. El problema se corrigió mediante un "Bumper Case" distribuido por Apple de forma gratuita a todos los propietarios durante unos meses. En junio de 2011, Apple superó a Nokiapara convertirse en el mayor fabricante de teléfonos inteligentes del mundo por volumen. [282] El 4 de octubre de 2011, Apple presentó el iPhone 4S , que se lanzó por primera vez el 14 de octubre de 2011. [283] Cuenta con el procesador Apple A5 y la tecnología de asistente de voz Siri , la última de las cuales Apple había adquirido en 2010 de Centro Internacional de Inteligencia Artificial SRI. [284] También cuenta con una cámara de 8MP actualizada con nuevas ópticas. Apple inició una nueva función de accesibilidad , Made for iPhone Hearing Aids con el iPhone 4S. [285]Los audífonos Made for iPhone cuentan con Live Listen, pueden ayudar al usuario a escuchar una conversación en una habitación ruidosa o escuchar a alguien hablando al otro lado de la habitación. [286] Apple vendió 4 millones de teléfonos iPhone 4S en los primeros tres días de disponibilidad. [287]

El 12 de septiembre de 2012, Apple presentó el iPhone 5 . [288] Tiene una pantalla de 4 pulgadas, conectividad 4G LTE y el chip Apple A6 actualizado , entre varias otras mejoras. [289] Se vendieron dos millones de iPhones en las primeras veinticuatro horas de pre-pedido [290] y más de cinco millones de teléfonos se vendieron en los primeros tres días de su lanzamiento. [291] Tras el lanzamiento del iPhone 5S y el iPhone 5C , Apple estableció un nuevo récord de ventas de teléfonos inteligentes el primer fin de semana al vender más de nueve millones de dispositivos en los primeros tres días de su lanzamiento. [292]El lanzamiento del iPhone 5S y 5C es la primera vez que Apple lanza simultáneamente dos modelos. [293]

Una patente presentada en julio de 2013 reveló el desarrollo de un nuevo sistema de batería de iPhone que utiliza datos de ubicación en combinación con datos sobre los hábitos del usuario para moderar la configuración de energía de los teléfonos en consecuencia. Apple está trabajando hacia un sistema de administración de energía que proporcionará características como la capacidad del iPhone para estimar el tiempo que un usuario estará alejado de una fuente de energía para modificar el uso de energía y una función de detección que ajusta la tasa de carga para adaptarse mejor. el tipo de fuente de energía que se está utilizando. [294]

En una entrevista de marzo de 2014, el diseñador de Apple, Jonathan Ive, utilizó el iPhone como ejemplo del espíritu de Apple de crear productos de alta calidad que cambian vidas. Explicó que los teléfonos son comparativamente caros debido al esfuerzo intensivo que se utiliza para fabricarlos:

No tardamos tanto y tomamos el camino que hacemos por razones fiscales ... Todo lo contrario. El cuerpo está hecho de una sola pieza de aluminio mecanizado ... Todo se pule primero hasta obtener un acabado de espejo y luego tiene una textura muy fina, a excepción del logotipo de Apple. Los chaflanes [bordes suavizados] se cortan con fresas con punta de diamante. Los cortadores no suelen durar mucho, por lo que tuvimos que encontrar una forma de fabricarlos en masa de larga duración. La tapa de la cámara es de cristal de zafiro. Mire los detalles alrededor de la ranura de la tarjeta SIM. ¡Es extraordinario! [102]

El 9 de septiembre de 2014, Apple presentó el iPhone 6 , junto con el iPhone 6 Plus, que tienen tamaños de pantalla de más de 4 pulgadas. [295] Un año después, Apple presentó el iPhone 6S y el iPhone 6S Plus , que introdujo una nueva tecnología llamada 3D Touch, que incluía un aumento de la cámara trasera a 12 MP y la cámara FaceTime a 5 MP. [296] El 21 de marzo de 2016, Apple presentó el iPhone SE de primera generación que tiene un tamaño de pantalla de 4 pulgadas que se usó por última vez con el 5S y tiene casi el mismo hardware interno que el 6S. [297]

En julio de 2016, Apple anunció que se habían vendido mil millones de iPhones. [298] [299]

El 7 de septiembre de 2016, Apple presentó el iPhone 7 y el iPhone 7 Plus , que cuentan con un sistema mejorado y un rendimiento gráfico, resistencia al agua IP67, un nuevo sistema de doble cámara trasera en el modelo 7 Plus y, de manera controvertida, eliminan el 3,5 mm. toma de auriculares. [300] [301]

Un iPhone 8 dorado junto con un 8 Plus dorado.

El 12 de septiembre de 2017, Apple presentó el iPhone 8 y el iPhone 8 Plus , como actualizaciones evolutivas de sus teléfonos anteriores con un procesador más rápido, tecnología de visualización mejorada, sistemas de cámara mejorados y carga inalámbrica. [302] La compañía también anunció el iPhone X , que cambia radicalmente el hardware de la línea de iPhone, eliminando el botón de inicio a favor de la tecnología de reconocimiento facial y presentando un diseño casi sin bisel junto con carga inalámbrica . [303] [304]

El 12 de septiembre de 2018, Apple presentó el iPhone XS , iPhone XS Max y iPhone XR . El iPhone XS y el iPhone XS Max mejoraron las pantallas y un sistema de doble cámara más rápido y mejorado. El iPhone XR, una versión de gama baja, cuenta con una pantalla LCD de 6.1 pulgadas en lugar de OLED, omite la cámara de telefoto y reemplaza el marco de acero inoxidable con aluminio anodizado. Los tres dispositivos cuentan con el chip A12 Bionic, el primer procesador de 7 nanómetros en un teléfono inteligente, con un motor neuronal de próxima generación y el sistema de cámara TrueDepth. [305] [306]

El 10 de septiembre de 2019, Apple presentó el iPhone 11 , iPhone 11 Pro y iPhone 11 Pro Max . El iPhone 11 presenta la misma pantalla LCD Liquid Retina que se usa en el iPhone XR y un diseño casi sin cambios, además de la adición de una cámara Ultrawide y un IP68.clasificación de resistencia al agua y al polvo. El iPhone 11 Pro y el iPhone 11 Pro Max cuentan con un nuevo diseño de vidrio mate texturizado y acero inoxidable y una configuración de cámara triple que incluye una cámara Ultra Wide, Wide y Teleobjetivo. Apple afirma que la duración de la batería de la serie iPhone 11 Pro es capaz de durar hasta 5 horas más que la del iPhone XS y XS Max. El iPhone 11 Pro y Pro Max también cuentan con una nueva pantalla OLED Super Retina XDR que es capaz de un brillo de pantalla de 800 nits. Todos los iPhones nuevos anunciados en Apple en septiembre de 2019 cuentan con un chip A13 Bionic con Neural Engine de tercera generación, un chip Apple U1, reproducción de audio espacial, un modo de fotografía con poca luz y un sistema Face ID mejorado. [307] [308]

El 15 de abril de 2020, Apple anunció un nuevo iPhone SE de segunda generación . Replica el diseño del iPhone 8: tiene una pantalla de 4.7 pulgadas, biseles considerables en la parte superior e inferior y un botón de inicio con Touch ID. Sin embargo, cuenta con un procesador mejorado, el A13 Bionic, y cámaras mejoradas en la parte delantera y trasera. [309]

El 13 de octubre de 2020, Apple presentó el iPhone 12 , iPhone 12 Mini , iPhone 12 Pro y iPhone 12 Pro Max . Los nuevos iPhones cuentan con un nuevo diseño con bordes planos, un elemento de diseño que recuerda a los diseños del iPhone 4 a través de la iPhone 5S , y es el primer rediseño importante desde el iPhone X . También cuentan con el A14 Bionicprocesador, el primer procesador de 5 nanómetros producido comercialmente. El iPhone 12 reemplaza la pantalla LCD Liquid Retina de su predecesor con una pantalla OLED Super Retina XDR, lo que reduce los bordes de la pantalla y conserva el tamaño de la pantalla. El iPhone 12 Mini cuenta con una pantalla de 5.4 pulgadas y un diseño más pequeño que los iPhones anteriores de 4.7 pulgadas. El iPhone 12 Pro y el iPhone 12 Pro Max mejoran el iPhone 12 y el iPhone 12 Mini, con adiciones como una pantalla más brillante, una cámara de telefoto y un LiDAR.escáner. El iPhone 12 Pro Max presenta la pantalla más grande en cualquier iPhone hasta la fecha, con una pantalla de 6.7 pulgadas y un sensor más grande que su contraparte más pequeña. Los cuatro nuevos iPhones también vienen con un vidrio frontal endurecido con cerámica, comercializado como Ceramic Shield, mientras que la parte posterior conserva el vidrio reforzado Dual-Ion Exchange de la generación anterior. Esta generación de iPhone también eliminó de manera controvertida tanto los auriculares incluidos como el adaptador de corriente de la caja, citando beneficios ambientales. [310] [311]

iPad

El 27 de enero de 2010, Apple presentó su tan esperada tableta multimedia , el iPad . [312] [313] Ofrece interacción multitáctil con formatos multimedia que incluyen periódicos, libros electrónicos, fotos, videos, música, documentos de procesamiento de texto, videojuegos y la mayoría de las aplicaciones de iPhone existentes que utilizan una pantalla de 9,7 pulgadas. [314] También incluye una versión móvil de Safari para la navegación web, así como acceso a la App Store, la biblioteca de iTunes , iBookstore , Contactos y Notas. El contenido se puede descargar a través de Wi-Fi y el servicio 3G opcional o se sincroniza a través de la computadora del usuario. [315] AT&TInicialmente era el único proveedor estadounidense de acceso inalámbrico 3G para iPad. [316]

iPad Air 2 en dorado

El 2 de marzo de 2011, Apple presentó el iPad 2 con un procesador más rápido y una cámara en la parte delantera y trasera. También agregó soporte para el servicio 3G opcional proporcionado por Verizon además de AT&T . [317] La disponibilidad del iPad 2 fue inicialmente limitada como resultado de un devastador terremoto y tsunami en Japón en marzo de 2011. [318]

El iPad de tercera generación se lanzó el 7 de marzo de 2012 y se comercializó como " el nuevo iPad ". Agregó el servicio LTE de AT&T o Verizon, un procesador A5X actualizado y pantalla Retina. Las dimensiones y el factor de forma se mantuvieron relativamente sin cambios, siendo el nuevo iPad una fracción más grueso y pesado que la versión anterior y presentando pequeños cambios de posicionamiento. [319]

El iPad Pro de segunda generación

El 23 de octubre de 2012, salió el iPad de cuarta generación de Apple, comercializado como el " iPad con pantalla Retina ". Agregó el procesador A6X actualizado y reemplazó el conector de base de 30 pines tradicional con el conector Lightning totalmente digital . [320] El iPad Mini también se introdujo. Presentaba una pantalla reducida de 7,9 pulgadas y muchas de las mismas especificaciones internas que el iPad 2. [321]

El 22 de octubre de 2013, Apple presentó el iPad Air y el iPad Mini con Retina Display, ambos con un nuevo procesador Apple A7 de 64 bits. [322]

El iPad Air 2 se presentó el 16 de octubre de 2014. Agregó mejores gráficos y procesamiento central y un modo de ráfaga de cámara, así como actualizaciones menores. El iPad Mini 3 se presentó al mismo tiempo. [322]

Desde su lanzamiento, los usuarios de iPad han descargado más de tres mil millones de aplicaciones. El número total de descargas de la App Store, a junio de 2015 , supera los 100 mil millones. [323]

El 9 de septiembre de 2015, Apple anunció el iPad Pro , un iPad con una pantalla de 12,9 pulgadas que admite dos nuevos accesorios, el Smart Keyboard y el Apple Pencil . [324] Al mismo tiempo, se anunció un iPad Mini 4 actualizado . [325] El 21 de marzo de 2016 se anunció un iPad Pro de 9,7 pulgadas. [326] El 5 de junio de 2017, Apple anunció un nuevo iPad Pro con una pantalla de 10,5 pulgadas para reemplazar el modelo de 9,7 pulgadas y una actualización de 12,9 pulgadas. modelo. [327]

Reloj de manzana

El Apple Watch se convirtió rápidamente en el dispositivo portátil más vendido, con el envío de 11,4 millones de relojes inteligentes en el primer semestre de 2015, según la firma analista Canalys. [328]

El reloj inteligente Apple Watch original fue anunciado por Tim Cook el 9 de septiembre de 2014, y se presentó como un producto con seguimiento de la salud y el estado físico. [329] [330] Fue lanzado el 24 de abril de 2015. [331] [332] [333]

La segunda generación de Apple Watch, Apple Watch Series 2 , se lanzó en septiembre de 2016, con mayor resistencia al agua, un procesador más rápido y una pantalla más brillante. También se lanzó junto con una Serie 1 más barata. [334]

El 12 de septiembre de 2017, Apple presentó el Apple Watch Series 3 con conectividad celular LTE, lo que brinda la independencia portátil de un iPhone [335] excepto por el proceso de configuración. [336]

El 12 de septiembre de 2018, Apple presentó el Apple Watch Series 4 , con nueva pantalla, electrocardiograma y detección de caídas. [337]

El 10 de septiembre de 2019, Apple presentó el Apple Watch Series 5, con un nuevo magnetómetro, un procesador más rápido y una nueva pantalla siempre encendida. La Serie 4 fue descontinuada.

El 16 de septiembre de 2020, Apple presentó el Apple Watch Series 6, con énfasis en el fitness, con medición de oxígeno en sangre y ECG, entre otras funciones de fitness. También presentaron el Apple Watch SE el 18 del mismo mes. [338]

Apple TV

En la conferencia Macworld de 2007, Jobs hizo una demostración del Apple TV (Jobs se refirió accidentalmente al dispositivo como "iTV", su nombre en clave, mientras estaba en el escenario), un dispositivo de video decodificador destinado a cerrar la venta de contenido de iTunes con alta definición. televisores. [339] El dispositivo, que ejecuta una variante de Mac OS X, se conecta al televisor de un usuario y se sincroniza a través de la red inalámbrica o cableada con la biblioteca de iTunes de una computadora y puede transmitir contenido desde cuatro adicionales. El Apple TV incorporó originalmente un disco duro de 40 GB para almacenamiento, incluía salidas para HDMI y video componente , y reproducía video a una resolución máxima de 720p . [145]El 30 de mayo de 2007, se lanzó una unidad de disco duro de 160 GB junto con el modelo existente de 40 GB. [340] Una actualización de software publicada el 15 de enero de 2008 permitió que los medios se compraran directamente desde el Apple TV. [341]

En septiembre de 2009, Apple descontinuó el Apple TV original de 40 GB, pero continuó produciendo y vendiendo el Apple TV de 160 GB. El 1 de septiembre de 2010, Apple lanzó un Apple TV completamente rediseñado que se ejecutaba en una variante de iOS y descontinuó el modelo anterior, que se ejecutaba en una variante de Mac OS X. El nuevo dispositivo tiene un tamaño de una cuarta parte, es más silencioso y reemplaza la necesidad de un disco duro con transmisión de medios desde cualquier biblioteca de iTunes en la red junto con 8 GB de memoria flash para almacenar en caché los medios descargados. Al igual que el iPad y el iPhone, el Apple TV funciona con un procesador A4. La memoria incluida en el dispositivo es la mitad de la del iPhone 4 con 256 MB; lo mismo que el iPad, iPhone 3GS, iPod Touch de tercera y cuarta generación . [342]

Tiene salida HDMI como única fuente de salida de video. Las características incluyen acceso a iTunes Store para alquilar películas y programas de televisión (la compra ha sido descontinuada), transmisión desde fuentes de video de Internet, incluidos YouTube y Netflix , y transmisión de medios desde una biblioteca de iTunes. Apple también redujo el precio del dispositivo a $ 99. Una tercera generación del dispositivo se presentó en un evento de Apple el 7 de marzo de 2012, con nuevas características como una resolución más alta (1080p) y una nueva interfaz de usuario.

En el evento del 9 de septiembre de 2015, Apple presentó un Apple TV revisado, que ahora ejecuta una variante posterior de iOS llamada tvOS , y contiene 32 GB o 64 GB de NAND Flash para almacenar juegos, programas y almacenar en caché los medios que se están reproduciendo actualmente. . El lanzamiento también coincidió con la apertura de una Apple TV App Store separada y un nuevo Siri Remote con un panel táctil de vidrio , giroscopio y micrófono .

El 12 de diciembre de 2016, Apple lanzó una nueva aplicación de reproductor de medios iOS y tvOS llamada TV para reemplazar la aplicación iOS existente "Videos".

At the September 12, 2017, event, Apple released a new 4K Apple TV with the same form factor as the 4th Generation model. The 4K model is powered by the A10X SoC designed in-house that also powers their second-generation iPad Pro. The 4K model also has support for high dynamic range.

On March 25, 2019, Apple announced Apple TV+, their upcoming over-the-top subscription video on-demand web television service, will arrive Fall 2019. TV+ features exclusive original shows, movies, and documentaries.[343] They also announced an update to the TV app with a new "Channels" feature and that the TV app will expand to macOS, numerous smart television models, Roku devices, and Amazon Fire TV devices later in 2019.

HomePod

A white HomePod on display

Apple's first smart speaker, the HomePod was released on February 9, 2018, after being delayed from its initial December 2017 release. It features seven tweeters in the base, a four-inch woofer in the top, and six microphones for voice control and acoustic optimization[344][345][346] On September 12, 2018, Apple announced that HomePod is adding new features—search by lyrics, set multiple timers, make and receive phone calls, Find My iPhone, Siri Shortcuts—and Siri languages.[347] In 2019, Apple, Google, Amazon, and Zigbee Alliance announced a partnership to make smart home products work together.[348]

Software and services

Apple Worldwide Developers Conference is held annually by Apple to showcase its new software and technologies for software developers.

Apple develops its own operating systems to run on its devices, including macOS for Mac personal computers,[349] iOS for its iPhone, iPad and iPod Touch smartphones and tablets,[350] watchOS for its Apple Watch smartwatches,[351] and tvOS for its Apple TV digital media player.[352]

For iOS and macOS, Apple also develops its own software titles, including Pages for writing, Numbers for spreadsheets, and Keynote for presentations, as part of its iWork productivity suite.[353] For macOS, it also offers iMovie and Final Cut Pro X for video editing,[354] and GarageBand and Logic Pro X for music creation.[355]

Apple's range of server software includes the operating system macOS Server;[356] Apple Remote Desktop, a remote systems management application;[357] and Xsan, a storage area network file system.[356]

Apple also offers online services with iCloud, which provides cloud storage and synchronization for a wide range of user data, including documents, photos, music, device backups, and application data,[358] and Apple Music, its music and video streaming service.[359]

Electric vehicles

According to the Sydney Morning Herald, Apple wanted to start producing an electric car with autonomous driving as soon as 2020. Apple has made efforts to recruit battery development engineers and other electric automobile engineers from A123 Systems, LG Chem, Samsung Electronics, Panasonic, Toshiba, Johnson Controls and Tesla Motors.[360]

Corporate identity

Logo

First Apple logo
(1976–1977)[361]
First official logo
(1977–1998)[361]
Third logo
(1998–2003)[361]
Current logo
(since 1999 but co existed with the third logo until 2003)[361]

According to Steve Jobs, the company's name was inspired by his visit to an apple farm while on a fruitarian diet. Jobs thought the name "Apple" was "fun, spirited and not intimidating".[362]

Apple's first logo, designed by Ron Wayne, depicts Sir Isaac Newton sitting under an apple tree. It was almost immediately replaced by Rob Janoff's "rainbow Apple", the now-familiar rainbow-colored silhouette of an apple with a bite taken out of it. Janoff presented Jobs with several different monochromatic themes for the "bitten" logo, and Jobs immediately took a liking to it. However, Jobs insisted that the logo be colorized to humanize the company.[363][364] The logo was designed with a bite so that it would not be confused with a cherry.[365] The colored stripes were conceived to make the logo more accessible, and to represent the fact the Apple II could generate graphics in color.[365] This logo is often erroneously referred to as a tribute to Alan Turing, with the bite mark a reference to his method of suicide.[366][367] Both Janoff and Apple deny any homage to Turing in the design of the logo.[365][368]

On August 27, 1999[369] (the year following the introduction of the iMac G3), Apple officially dropped the rainbow scheme and began to use monochromatic logos nearly identical in shape to the previous rainbow incarnation. An Aqua-themed version of the monochrome logo was used from 1998 to 2003, and a glass-themed version was used from 2007 to 2013.[370]

Steve Jobs and Steve Wozniak were Beatles fans,[371][372] but Apple Inc. had name and logo trademark issues with Apple Corps Ltd., a multimedia company started by the Beatles in 1968. This resulted in a series of lawsuits and tension between the two companies. These issues ended with the settling of their lawsuit in 2007.[373]

Advertising

Apple's first slogan, "Byte into an Apple", was coined in the late 1970s.[374] From 1997 to 2002, the slogan "Think Different" was used in advertising campaigns, and is still closely associated with Apple.[375] Apple also has slogans for specific product lines — for example, "iThink, therefore iMac" was used in 1998 to promote the iMac,[376] and "Say hello to iPhone" has been used in iPhone advertisements.[377] "Hello" was also used to introduce the original Macintosh, Newton, iMac ("hello (again)"), and iPod.[378]

From the introduction of the Macintosh in 1984, with the 1984 Super Bowl advertisement to the more modern Get a Mac adverts, Apple has been recognized for its efforts towards effective advertising and marketing for its products. However, claims made by later campaigns were criticized,[379] particularly the 2005 Power Mac ads.[380] Apple's product advertisements gained a lot of attention as a result of their eye-popping graphics and catchy tunes.[381] Musicians who benefited from an improved profile as a result of their songs being included on Apple advertisements include Canadian singer Feist with the song "1234" and Yael Naïm with the song "New Soul".[381]

Apple owns a YouTube channel where they release advertisements, tips, and introductions for their devices.[382][383]

Brand semiotics

Semiotics is the study of how meaning is derived from symbols and signs and provides major insight for understanding brand management and brand loyalty. Ferdinand de Saussure, a Swiss linguist and semiotician, created a semiotic model that identifies two parts of a sign: the signified and signifier. The signifier is the perceptual component that we physically see, and the signified is then the concept which the sign refers to. In Saussure’s model, the sign results from the recognition of a sound or object with a concept. In his model, the signified and signifier are “as inseparable as two sides of a piece of paper".[384] The second popular semiotic model that exists is the Peircean Model. Charles Sanders Pierce was a logician. His model, like Saussure’s model, involved the relationship between the elements of signs and objects. However, the Peircean model added that whoever is decoding the sign must have some previous understanding or knowledge about the transmitted message.[385] Peirce’s model can be represented using the three sides of triangle: the representamen (the sign), an object (what the sign represents), and the interpretant (the produced effect by the sign).[384]

The symbolic representation that a brand carries can affect how a consumer “recalls, internalizes, and relates” to the performance of a company. There is plenty of evidence to show that a company can easily fail if they do not keep track of how the brand changes with the media culture. Semiotic research can be used to help a company relate to their customer’s culture over time and help their brand to stand out in competitive markets.[386]

The first two Apple logos are drastically different from each other. However, they both share the sign of an apple. In the original logo designed by Ronald Wayne, Sir Isaac Newton is seen sitting under the infamous apple tree about to bear fruit above, just before his discovery of gravity. Analysis of the semiotics with Saussure's model yields the signified, or sign, of the apple. The signifier represents discovery, innovation, and the notion of thought.[387]

It was quickly realized that the original logo was too complicated and intellectual for the needed purpose. The company’s mission was, and still is, to simplify technology for everyday life. A fun and clever logo that spoke to computer-savvy people was needed. In 1977, Rob Janoff created the iconic rainbow apple symbol that is still recognized today. The logo has double meaning and differs from the many serious corporate logos in existence at the time.[388][page needed]

Apple Inc. is well known for being an innovative company who challenge the status quo and established standards. Again, using Saussure’s semiotic model, the signified, is an apple, but with a bite taken out of it. Because Apple is seen as a challenger in the industry, the most common signifier is the forbidden fruit from the Biblical reference, the Garden of Eden.[389] The signified is the bite from the apple, and the represented signifier is the tree of knowledge, thus symbolizing Apple as a rebellious young company ready to challenge the world[387] and the promise of knowledge that an entire culture of Apple users may gain from the product.[389]

The semiotics of the bite and the color of the logo can also be looked at from a technological viewpoint. The bite is the signified and the computer storage unit, byte, is the signifier. The rainbow color of the logo portrays the message that its computer monitor could be producing color images.[387] Steve Jobs argued that color was crucial for "humanizing the company" at that time.[389]

The only thing to change with the logo since 1977 has been the color. In 1998, a monochromatic logo was implemented with the release of the first iMac. This is the first Mac to not have the iconic rainbow-colored apple since its creation 20 years prior.[390] The new look represents a new era of Apple Inc. The logo's shape had become untouchable and Apple's message is that it is better to be different.[390]

Brand loyalty

"The scenes I witnessed at the opening of the new Apple store in London's Covent Garden were more like an evangelical prayer meeting than a chance to buy a phone or a laptop."

—Alex Riley, writing for the BBC[391]

Apple customers gained a reputation for devotion and loyalty early in the company's history. In 1984, BYTE stated that:[392]

There are two kinds of people in the world: people who say Apple isn't just a company, it's a cause; and people who say Apple isn't a cause, it's just a company. Both groups are right. Nature has suspended the principle of noncontradiction where Apple is concerned. Apple is more than just a company because its founding has some of the qualities of myth ... Apple is two guys in a garage undertaking the mission of bringing computing power, once reserved for big corporations, to ordinary individuals with ordinary budgets. The company's growth from two guys to a billion-dollar corporation exemplifies the American Dream. Even as a large corporation, Apple plays David to IBM's Goliath, and thus has the sympathetic role in that myth.

Apple aficionados wait in line around an Apple Store in Shanghai in anticipation of a new product.

Apple evangelists were actively engaged by the company at one time, but this was after the phenomenon had already been firmly established. Apple evangelist Guy Kawasaki has called the brand fanaticism "something that was stumbled upon,"[393] while Ive explained in 2014 that "People have an incredibly personal relationship" with Apple's products.[102] Apple Store openings and new product releases can draw crowds of hundreds, with some waiting in line as much as a day before the opening.[394][395][396][397] The opening of New York City's Apple Fifth Avenue store in 2006 was highly attended, and had visitors from Europe who flew in for the event.[398] In June 2017, a newlywed couple took their wedding photos inside the then-recently opened Orchard Road Apple Store in Singapore.[399][400] The high level of brand loyalty has been criticized and ridiculed, applying the epithet "Apple fanboy" and mocking the lengthy lines before a product launch.[401] An internal memo leaked in 2015 suggested the company planned to discourage long lines and direct customers to purchase its products on its website.[402]

Fortune magazine named Apple the most admired company in the United States in 2008, and in the world from 2008 to 2012.[403][404][405][406][407] On September 30, 2013, Apple surpassed Coca-Cola to become the world's most valuable brand in the Omnicom Group's "Best Global Brands" report.[408] Boston Consulting Group has ranked Apple as the world's most innovative brand every year since 2005.[409]

The New York Times in 1985 stated that "Apple above all else is a marketing company".[410] John Sculley agreed, telling The Guardian newspaper in 1997 that "People talk about technology, but Apple was a marketing company. It was the marketing company of the decade."[411] Research in 2002 by NetRatings indicate that the average Apple consumer was usually more affluent and better educated than other PC company consumers. The research indicated that this correlation could stem from the fact that on average Apple Inc. products were more expensive than other PC products.[412][413]

In response to a query about the devotion of loyal Apple consumers, Jonathan Ive responded:

What people are responding to is much bigger than the object. They are responding to something rare—a group of people who do more than simply make something work, they make the very best products they possibly can. It's a demonstration against thoughtlessness and carelessness.[102]

Home page

The Apple website home page has been used to commemorate, or pay tribute to, milestones and events outside of Apple's product offerings, including:

  • 2021: Martin Luther King Jr.[414]
  • 2020: John Lewis[415]
  • 2020: International Women's Day [416]
  • 2020: Martin Luther King Jr.[417]
  • 2019: Martin Luther King Jr.[418]
  • 2018: Martin Luther King Jr.[419]
  • 2017: Martin Luther King Jr.[420]
  • 2016: Muhammad Ali[421]
  • 2016: Bill Campbell (board member and friend)[422]
  • 2016: Martin Luther King Jr.[423]
  • 2015: Martin Luther King Jr.[424]
  • 2014: Robin Williams[425]
  • 2013: Nelson Mandela[426]
  • 2012: Steve Jobs[427]
  • 2011: Steve Jobs[428]
  • 2010: Jerome B. York (board member)[429]
  • 2007: Al Gore (board member; in honor of his Nobel Peace Prize)[430]
  • 2005: Rosa Parks[431]
  • 2003: Gregory Hines[432]
  • 2001: George Harrison[433]

Headquarters

Apple Inc.'s world corporate headquarters are located in the middle of Silicon Valley, at 1–6 Infinite Loop, Cupertino, California. This Apple campus has six buildings that total 850,000 square feet (79,000 m2) and was built in 1993 by Sobrato Development Cos.[434]

Apple has a satellite campus in neighboring Sunnyvale, California, where it houses a testing and research laboratory.[435] AppleInsider claimed in March 2014 that Apple has a top-secret facility for development of the SG5 electric vehicle project codenamed "Titan" under the shell company name SixtyEight Research.[436]

Panorama of the Auditorium in the Steve Jobs Theater at Apple Park in 2018

In 2006, Apple announced its intention to build a second campus in Cupertino about 1 mile (1.6 km) east of the current campus and next to Interstate 280.[437] The new campus building has been designed by Norman Foster.[438] The Cupertino City Council approved the proposed "spaceship" design campus on October 15, 2013, after a 2011 presentation by Jobs detailing the architectural design of the new building and its environs. The new campus is planned to house up to 13,000 employees in one central, four-storied, circular building surrounded by extensive landscape. It will feature a café with room for 3,000 sitting people and parking underground as well as in a parking structure. The 2.8 million square foot facility will also include Jobs's original designs for a fitness center and a corporate auditorium.[439]

External view of the Steve Jobs Theater at Apple Park in 2018

Apple has expanded its campuses in Austin, Texas, concurrently with building Apple Park in Cupertino. The expansion consists of two locations, with one having 1.1 million square feet (100,000 m2) of workspace, and the other 216,000 square feet (20,100 m2).[440] Apple will invest $1 billion to build the North Austin campus.[441] At the biggest location, 6,000 employees work on technical support, manage Apple's network of suppliers to fulfill product shipments, aid in maintaining iTunes Store and App Store, handle economy, and continuously update Apple Maps with new data. At its smaller campus, 500 engineers work on next-generation processor chips to run in future Apple products.[442]

Apple's headquarters for Europe, the Middle East and Africa (EMEA) are located in Cork in the south of Ireland.[443][444][445][446][447][448][449] The facility, which opened in 1980, is Apple's first location outside of the United States.[450] Apple Sales International, which deals with all of Apple's international sales outside of the US, is located at Apple's campus in Cork[451] along with Apple Distribution International, which similarly deals with Apple's international distribution network.[452] On April 20, 2012, Apple added 500 new jobs at its European headquarters, increasing the total workforce from around 2,800 to 3,300 employees.[439][444][453] The company will build a new office block on its Hollyhill Campus to accommodate the additional staff.[454] Its United Kingdom headquarters is at Stockley Park on the outskirts of London.[455]

In February 2015, Apple opened its new 180,000-square-foot headquarters in Herzliya, Israel, designed to accommodate approximately 800 employees. This is Apple's third office located within Israel; the first, also in Herzliya, was obtained as part of the Anobit acquisition, and the other is a research center in Haifa.[456][457]

In December 2015, Apple bought a 70,000-square-foot manufacturing facility in North San Jose, California previously used by Maxim Integrated in an $18.2 million deal.[458][459]

Stores

Apple Fifth Avenue, New York City
Omotesando, Tokyo, Japan

The first Apple Stores were originally opened as two locations in May 2001 by then-CEO Steve Jobs,[460] after years of attempting but failing store-within-a-store concepts.[461] Seeing a need for improved retail presentation of the company's products, he began an effort in 1997 to revamp the retail program to get an improved relationship to consumers, and hired Ron Johnson in 2000.[461] Jobs relaunched Apple's online store in 1997,[462] and opened the first two physical stores in 2001.[460] The media initially speculated that Apple would fail,[463] but its stores were highly successful, bypassing the sales numbers of competing nearby stores and within three years reached US$1 billion in annual sales, becoming the fastest retailer in history to do so.[463] Over the years, Apple has expanded the number of retail locations and its geographical coverage, with 499 stores across 22 countries worldwide as of December 2017.[464] Strong product sales have placed Apple among the top-tier retail stores, with sales over $16 billion globally in 2011.[465]

In May 2016, Angela Ahrendts, Apple's then Senior Vice President of Retail, unveiled a significantly redesigned Apple Store in Union Square, San Francisco, featuring large glass doors for the entry, open spaces, and re-branded rooms. In addition to purchasing products, consumers can get advice and help from "Creative Pros" – individuals with specialized knowledge of creative arts; get product support in a tree-lined Genius Grove; and attend sessions, conferences and community events,[466][467] with Ahrendts commenting that the goal is to make Apple Stores into "town squares", a place where people naturally meet up and spend time.[468] The new design will be applied to all Apple Stores worldwide,[469] a process that has seen stores temporarily relocate[470] or close.[471]

Many Apple Stores are located inside shopping malls, but Apple has built several stand-alone "flagship" stores in high-profile locations.[461] It has been granted design patents and received architectural awards for its stores' designs and construction, specifically for its use of glass staircases and cubes.[472] The success of Apple Stores have had significant influence over other consumer electronics retailers, who have lost traffic, control and profits due to a perceived higher quality of service and products at Apple Stores.[473][474] Apple's notable brand loyalty among consumers causes long lines of hundreds of people at new Apple Store openings or product releases.[394][395][396][397] Due to the popularity of the brand, Apple receives a large number of job applications, many of which come from young workers.[465] Although Apple Store employees receive above-average pay, are offered money toward education and health care, and receive product discounts,[465] there are limited or no paths of career advancement.[465] A May 2016 report with an anonymous retail employee highlighted a hostile work environment with harassment from customers, intense internal criticism, and a lack of significant bonuses for securing major business contracts.[475]

Polanco, Mexico City

Due to the COVID-19 pandemic, Apple closed its stores outside China until March 27, 2020. Despite the stores being closed, hourly workers continue to be paid. Workers across the company are allowed to work remotely if their jobs permit it.[476] On March 24, 2020, in a memo, Senior Vice President of People and Retail Deirdre O’Brien announced that some of its retail stores are expected to reopen at the beginning of April.[477]

Corporate affairs

Corporate culture

Steve Wozniak and Andy Hertzfeld at the Apple User Group Connection club in 1985
Universities with the most alumni at Apple

Apple is one of several highly successful companies founded in the 1970s that bucked the traditional notions of corporate culture. Jobs often walked around the office barefoot even after Apple became a Fortune 500 company. By the time of the "1984" television advertisement, Apple's informal culture had become a key trait that differentiated it from its competitors.[478] According to a 2011 report in Fortune, this has resulted in a corporate culture more akin to a startup rather than a multinational corporation.[479] In a 2017 interview, Wozniak credited watching Star Trek and attending Star Trek conventions while in his youth as a source of inspiration for his co-founding Apple.[480]

As the company has grown and been led by a series of differently opinionated chief executives, it has arguably lost some of its original character. Nonetheless, it has maintained a reputation for fostering individuality and excellence that reliably attracts talented workers, particularly after Jobs returned to the company. Numerous Apple employees have stated that projects without Jobs's involvement often took longer than projects with it.[481]

To recognize the best of its employees, Apple created the Apple Fellows program which awards individuals who make extraordinary technical or leadership contributions to personal computing while at the company. The Apple Fellowship has so far been awarded to individuals including Bill Atkinson,[482] Steve Capps,[483] Rod Holt,[482] Alan Kay,[484][485] Guy Kawasaki,[484][486] Al Alcorn,[487] Don Norman,[484] Rich Page,[482] Steve Wozniak,[482] and Phil Schiller.[488]

At Apple, employees are intended to be specialists who are not exposed to functions outside their area of expertise. Jobs saw this as a means of having "best-in-class" employees in every role. For instance, Ron Johnson—Senior Vice President of Retail Operations until November 1, 2011—was responsible for site selection, in-store service, and store layout, yet had no control of the inventory in his stores. This was done by Tim Cook, who had a background in supply-chain management.[489] Apple is known for strictly enforcing accountability. Each project has a "directly responsible individual" or "DRI" in Apple jargon.[479][490] As an example, when iOS senior vice president Scott Forstall refused to sign Apple's official apology for numerous errors in the redesigned Maps app, he was forced to resign.[491] Unlike other major U.S. companies, Apple provides a relatively simple compensation policy for executives that does not include perks enjoyed by other CEOs like country club fees or private use of company aircraft. The company typically grants stock options to executives every other year.[492]

In 2015, Apple had 110,000 full-time employees. This increased to 116,000 full-time employees the next year, a notable hiring decrease, largely due to its first revenue decline. Apple does not specify how many of its employees work in retail, though its 2014 SEC filing put the number at approximately half of its employee base.[493] In September 2017, Apple announced that it had over 123,000 full-time employees.[494]

Apple has a strong culture of corporate secrecy, and has an anti-leak Global Security team that recruits from the National Security Agency, the Federal Bureau of Investigation, and the United States Secret Service.[495][496][497]

In December 2017, Glassdoor said Apple was the 48th best place to work, having originally entered at rank 19 in 2009, peaking at rank 10 in 2012, and falling down the ranks in subsequent years.[498][499]

Lack of innovation

An editorial article in The Verge in September 2016 by technology journalist Thomas Ricker explored some of the public's perceived lack of innovation at Apple in recent years, specifically stating that Samsung has "matched and even surpassed Apple in terms of smartphone industrial design" and citing the belief that Apple is incapable of producing another breakthrough moment in technology with its products. He goes on to write that the criticism focuses on individual pieces of hardware rather than the ecosystem as a whole, stating "Yes, iteration is boring. But it's also how Apple does business. [...] It enters a new market and then refines and refines and continues refining until it yields a success". He acknowledges that people are wishing for the "excitement of revolution", but argues that people want "the comfort that comes with harmony". Furthermore, he writes that "a device is only the starting point of an experience that will ultimately be ruled by the ecosystem in which it was spawned", referring to how decent hardware products can still fail without a proper ecosystem (specifically mentioning that Walkman did not have an ecosystem to keep users from leaving once something better came along), but how Apple devices in different hardware segments are able to communicate and cooperate through the iCloud cloud service with features including Universal Clipboard (in which text copied on one device can be pasted on a different device) as well as inter-connected device functionality including Auto Unlock (in which an Apple Watch can unlock a Mac in close proximity). He argues that Apple's ecosystem is its greatest innovation.[500]

The Wall Street Journal reported in June 2017 that Apple's increased reliance on Siri, its virtual personal assistant, has raised questions about how much Apple can actually accomplish in terms of functionality. Whereas Google and Amazon make use of big data and analyze customer information to personalize results, Apple has a strong pro-privacy stance, intentionally not retaining user data. "Siri is a textbook of leading on something in tech and then losing an edge despite having all the money and the talent and sitting in Silicon Valley", Holger Mueller, a technology analyst, told the Journal. The report further claims that development on Siri has suffered due to team members and executives leaving the company for competitors, a lack of ambitious goals, and shifting strategies. Though switching Siri's functions to machine learning and algorithms, which dramatically cut its error rate, the company reportedly still failed to anticipate the popularity of Amazon's Echo, which features the Alexa personal assistant. Improvements to Siri stalled, executives clashed, and there were disagreements over the restrictions imposed on third-party app interactions. While Apple acquired an England-based startup specializing in conversational assistants, Google's Assistant had already become capable of helping users select Wi-Fi networks by voice, and Siri was lagging in functionality.[501][502]

In December 2017, two articles from The Verge and ZDNet debated what had been a particularly devastating week for Apple's macOS and iOS software platforms. The former had experienced a severe security vulnerability, in which Macs running the then-latest macOS High Sierra software were vulnerable to a bug that let anyone gain administrator privileges by entering "root" as the username in system prompts, leaving the password field empty and twice clicking "unlock", gaining full access.[503] The bug was publicly disclosed on Twitter, rather than through proper bug bounty programs.[504] Apple released a security fix within a day and issued an apology, stating that "regrettably we stumbled" in regards to the security of the latest updates.[505] After installing the security patch, however, file sharing was broken for users, with Apple releasing a support document with instructions to separately fix that issue.[506] Though Apple publicly stated the promise of "auditing our development processes to help prevent this from happening again", users who installed the security update while running the older 10.13.0 version of the High Sierra operating system rather than the then-newest 10.13.1 release experienced that the "root" security vulnerability was re-introduced, and persisted even after fully updating their systems.[507] On iOS, a date bug caused iOS devices that received local app notifications at 12:15am on December 2, 2017 to repeatedly restart.[508] Users were recommended to turn off notifications for their apps.[509] Apple quickly released an update, done during the nighttime in Cupertino, California time[510][511] and outside of their usual software release window,[512] with one of the headlining features of the update needing to be delayed for a few days.[513][514] The combined problems of the week on both macOS and iOS caused The Verge's Tom Warren to call it a "nightmare" for Apple's software engineers and described it as a significant lapse in Apple's ability to protect its more than 1 billion devices.[512] ZDNet's Adrian Kingsley-Hughes wrote that "it's hard to not come away from the last week with the feeling that Apple is slipping".[515] Kingsley-Hughes also concluded his piece by referencing an earlier article, in which he wrote that "As much as I don't want to bring up the tired old 'Apple wouldn't have done this under Steve Jobs's watch' trope, a lot of what's happening at Apple lately is different from what they came to expect under Jobs. Not to say that things didn't go wrong under his watch, but product announcements and launches felt a lot tighter for sure, as did the overall quality of what Apple was releasing." He did, however, also acknowledge that such failures "may indeed have happened" with Jobs in charge, though returning to the previous praise for his demands of quality, stating "it's almost guaranteed that given his personality that heads would have rolled, which limits future failures".[515]

Manufacturing

The company's manufacturing, procurement, and logistics enable it to execute massive product launches without having to maintain large, profit-sapping inventories. In 2011, Apple's profit margins were 40 percent, compared with between 10 and 20 percent for most other hardware companies. Cook's catchphrase to describe his focus on the company's operational arm is: "Nobody wants to buy sour milk".[179][516]

During the Mac's early history Apple generally refused to adopt prevailing industry standards for hardware, instead creating their own.[517] This trend was largely reversed in the late 1990s, beginning with Apple's adoption of the PCI bus in the 7500/8500/9500 Power Macs. Apple has since joined the industry standards groups to influence the future direction of technology standards such as USB, AGP, HyperTransport, Wi-Fi, NVMe, PCIe and others in its products. FireWire is an Apple-originated standard that was widely adopted across the industry after it was standardized as IEEE 1394 and is a legally mandated port in all Cable TV boxes in the United States.[518]

Apple has gradually expanded its efforts in getting its products into the Indian market. In July 2012, during a conference call with investors, CEO Tim Cook said that he "[loves] India", but that Apple saw larger opportunities outside the region.[519] India's requirement that 30% of products sold be manufactured in the country was described as "really adds cost to getting product to market".[520] In October 2013, Indian Apple executives unveiled a plan for selling devices through instalment plans and store-within-a-store concepts, in an effort to expand further into the market. The news followed Cook's acknowledgment of the country in July when sales results showed that iPhone sales in India grew 400% during the second quarter of 2013.[521][522] In March 2016, The Times of India reported that Apple had sought permission from the Indian government to sell refurbished iPhones in the country.[523][524] However, two months later, the application was rejected, citing official country policy.[525][526] In May 2016, Apple opened an iOS app development center in Bangalore and a maps development office for 4,000 staff in Hyderabad.[527][528][529][530] In February 2017, Apple once again requested permission to sell used iPhones in the country.[531][532] The same month, Bloomberg reported that Apple was close to receiving permission to open its first retail store in the country.[533][534] In March, The Wall Street Journal reported that Apple would begin manufacturing iPhone models in India "over the next two months",[535][536] and in May, the Journal wrote that an Apple manufacturer had begun production of iPhone SE in the country,[537][538] while Apple told CNBC that the manufacturing was for a "small number" of units.[539] Reuters reported in December 2017, that Apple and the Indian government were clashing over planned increases to import taxes for components used in mobile phone production, with Apple having engaged in talks with government officials to try to delay the plans, but the Indian government sticking to its policies of no exemptions to its "Make in India" initiative.[540][541] The import tax increases went into effect a few days later, with Apple being hurt the most out of all phone manufacturers, having nine of out ten phones imported into the country, whereas main smartphone competitor Samsung produces almost all of its devices locally.[542] In April 2019, Apple initiated manufacturing of iPhone 7 at its Bengaluru facility, keeping in mind demand from local customers even as they seek more incentives from the government of India.[543] At the beginning of 2020, Tim Cook announced that Apple schedules the opening of its first physical outlet in India for 2021, while an online store is to be launched by the end of the year.[544] In 2020, the purchasing price for an iPhone 7 or SE (2nd generation) was approximately ₹ 20,499 – ₹ 37,900 (about 250–520 USD).

In May 2017, the company announced a $1 billion funding project for "advanced manufacturing" in the United States,[545][546] and subsequently invested $200 million in Corning Inc., a manufacturer of toughened Gorilla Glass technology used in its iPhone devices.[547][548] The following December, Apple's chief operating officer, Jeff Williams, told CNBC that the "$1 billion" amount was "absolutely not" the final limit on its spending, elaborating that "We're not thinking in terms of a fund limit. ... We're thinking about, where are the opportunities across the U.S. to help nurture companies that are making the advanced technology — and the advanced manufacturing that goes with that — that quite frankly is essential to our innovation".[549][550]

Labor practices

The company advertised its products as being made in America until the late 1990s; however, as a result of outsourcing initiatives in the 2000s, almost all of its manufacturing is now handled abroad. According to a report by The New York Times, Apple insiders "believe the vast scale of overseas factories, as well as the flexibility, diligence and industrial skills of foreign workers, have so outpaced their American counterparts that "Made in the U.S.A." is no longer a viable option for most Apple products".[551]

In 2006, one complex of factories that assembled the iPod and other items had over 200,000 workers living and working within it. Employees regularly worked more than 60 hours per week and made around $100 per month. A little over half of the workers' earnings was required to pay for rent and food from the company.[552][553][554][555]

Apple immediately launched an investigation after the 2006 media report, and worked with their manufacturers to ensure acceptable working conditions.[556] In 2007, Apple started yearly audits of all its suppliers regarding worker's rights, slowly raising standards and pruning suppliers that did not comply. Yearly progress reports have been published since 2008.[557] In 2011, Apple admitted that its suppliers' child labor practices in China had worsened.[558]

The Foxconn suicides occurred between January and November 2010, when 18[559] Foxconn (Chinese: 富士康) employees attempted suicide, resulting in 14 deaths—the company was the world's largest contract electronics manufacturer, for clients including Apple, at the time.[559][560][561] The suicides drew media attention, and employment practices at Foxconn were investigated by Apple.[562] Apple issued a public statement about the suicides, and company spokesperson Steven Dowling said:

[Apple is] saddened and upset by the recent suicides at Foxconn ... A team from Apple is independently evaluating the steps they are taking to address these tragic events and we will continue our ongoing inspections of the facilities where our products are made.[563]

The statement was released after the results from the company's probe into its suppliers' labor practices were published in early 2010. Foxconn was not specifically named in the report, but Apple identified a series of serious labor violations of labor laws, including Apple's own rules, and some child labor existed in a number of factories.[563] Apple committed to the implementation of changes following the suicides.[564]

Also in 2010, workers in China planned to sue iPhone contractors over poisoning by a cleaner used to clean LCD screens. One worker claimed that he and his coworkers had not been informed of possible occupational illnesses.[565] After a high suicide rate in a Foxconn facility in China making iPads and iPhones, albeit a lower rate than that of China as a whole,[566] workers were forced to sign a legally binding document guaranteeing that they would not kill themselves.[567] Workers in factories producing Apple products have also been exposed to n-hexane, a neurotoxin that is a cheaper alternative than alcohol for cleaning the products.[568][569][570]

A 2014 BBC investigation found excessive hours and other problems persisted, despite Apple's promise to reform factory practice after the 2010 Foxconn suicides. The Pegatron factory was once again the subject of review, as reporters gained access to the working conditions inside through recruitment as employees. While the BBC maintained that the experiences of its reporters showed that labor violations were continuing since 2010, Apple publicly disagreed with the BBC and stated: "We are aware of no other company doing as much as Apple to ensure fair and safe working conditions".[564]

In December 2014, the Institute for Global Labour and Human Rights published a report which documented inhumane conditions for the 15,000 workers at a Zhen Ding Technology factory in Shenzhen, China, which serves as a major supplier of circuit boards for Apple's iPhone and iPad. According to the report, workers are pressured into 65-hour work weeks which leaves them so exhausted that they often sleep during lunch breaks. They are also made to reside in "primitive, dark and filthy dorms" where they sleep "on plywood, with six to ten workers in each crowded room." Omnipresent security personnel also routinely harass and beat the workers.[571][572]

In 2019, there were reports stating that some of Foxconn's managers had used rejected parts to build iPhones and that Apple was investigating the issue.[573]

Environmental practices and initiatives

Apple Energy

Apple Energy, LLC is a wholly owned subsidiary of Apple Inc. that sells solar energy. As of June 6, 2016, Apple's solar farms in California and Nevada have been declared to provide 217.9 megawatts of solar generation capacity.[574][575] In addition to the company's solar energy production, Apple has received regulatory approval to construct a landfill gas energy plant in North Carolina. Apple will use the methane emissions to generate electricity.[576] Apple's North Carolina data center is already powered entirely with energy from renewable sources.[577]

Energy and resources

Following a Greenpeace protest, Apple released a statement on April 17, 2012, committing to ending its use of coal and shifting to 100% renewable clean energy.[578][579] By 2013, Apple was using 100% renewable energy to power their data centers. Overall, 75% of the company's power came from clean renewable sources.[580]

In 2010, Climate Counts, a nonprofit organization dedicated to directing consumers toward the greenest companies, gave Apple a score of 52 points out of a possible 100, which puts Apple in their top category "Striding".[581] This was an increase from May 2008, when Climate Counts only gave Apple 11 points out of 100, which placed the company last among electronics companies, at which time Climate Counts also labeled Apple with a "stuck icon", adding that Apple at the time was "a choice to avoid for the climate-conscious consumer".[582]

In May 2015, Greenpeace evaluated the state of the Green Internet and commended Apple on their environmental practices saying, "Apple's commitment to renewable energy has helped set a new bar for the industry, illustrating in very concrete terms that a 100% renewable Internet is within its reach, and providing several models of intervention for other companies that want to build a sustainable Internet."[583]

As of 2016, Apple states that 100% of its U.S. operations run on renewable energy, 100% of Apple's data centers run on renewable energy and 93% of Apple's global operations run on renewable energy.[584] However, the facilities are connected to the local grid which usually contains a mix of fossil and renewable sources, so Apple carbon offsets its electricity use.[585][586] The Electronic Product Environmental Assessment Tool (EPEAT) allows consumers to see the effect a product has on the environment. Each product receives a Gold, Silver, or Bronze rank depending on its efficiency and sustainability. Every Apple tablet, notebook, desktop computer, and display that EPEAT ranks achieves a Gold rating, the highest possible. Although Apple's data centers recycle water 35 times,[587] the increased activity in retail, corporate and data centers also increase the amount of water use to 573 million US gal (2.2 million m3) in 2015.[588]

During an event on March 21, 2016, Apple provided a status update on its environmental initiative to be 100% renewable in all of its worldwide operations. Lisa P. Jackson, Apple's vice president of Environment, Policy and Social Initiatives who reports directly to CEO, Tim Cook, announced that as of March 2016, 93% of Apple's worldwide operations are powered with renewable energy. Also featured was the company's efforts to use sustainable paper in their product packaging; 99% of all paper used by Apple in the product packaging comes from post-consumer recycled paper or sustainably managed forests, as the company continues its move to all paper packaging for all of its products.[589][590] Apple working in partnership with Conservation Fund, have preserved 36,000 acres of working forests in Maine and North Carolina. Another partnership announced is with the World Wildlife Fund to preserve up to 1,000,000 acres (4,000 km2) of forests in China. Featured was the company's installation of a 40 MW solar power plant in the Sichuan province of China that was tailor-made to coexist with the indigenous yaks that eat hay produced on the land, by raising the panels to be several feet off of the ground so the yaks and their feed would be unharmed grazing beneath the array. This installation alone compensates for more than all of the energy used in Apple's Stores and Offices in the whole of China, negating the company's energy carbon footprint in the country. In Singapore, Apple has worked with the Singaporean government to cover the rooftops of 800 buildings in the city-state with solar panels allowing Apple's Singapore operations to be run on 100% renewable energy. Liam was introduced to the world, an advanced robotic disassembler and sorter designed by Apple Engineers in California specifically for recycling outdated or broken iPhones. Reuses and recycles parts from traded in products.[591]

Apple announced on August 16, 2016, that Lens Technology, one of its major suppliers in China, has committed to power all its glass production for Apple with 100 percent renewable energy by 2018. The commitment is a large step in Apple's efforts to help manufacturers lower their carbon footprint in China.[592] Apple also announced that all 14 of its final assembly sites in China are now compliant with UL's Zero Waste to Landfill validation. The standard, which started in January 2015, certifies that all manufacturing waste is reused, recycled, composted, or converted into energy (when necessary). Since the program began, nearly, 140,000 metric tons of waste have been diverted from landfills.[593][better source needed]

On July 21, 2020, Apple announced its plan to become carbon neutral across its entire business, manufacturing supply chain, and product life cycle by 2030. In the next 10 years, Apple will try to lower emissions with a series of innovative actions, including: low carbon product design, expanding energy efficiency, renewable energy, process and material innovations, and carbon removal.[594]

In April 2021, Apple said that it had started a $200 million fund in order to combat climate change by removing 1 million metric tons of carbon dioxide from the atmosphere each year.[595]

Toxins

Following further campaigns by Greenpeace,[596] in 2008, Apple became the first electronics manufacturer to fully eliminate all polyvinyl chloride (PVC) and brominated flame retardants (BFRs) in its complete product line.[597][598] In June 2007, Apple began replacing the cold cathode fluorescent lamp (CCFL) backlit LCD displays in its computers with mercury-free LED-backlit LCD displays and arsenic-free glass, starting with the upgraded MacBook Pro.[599][600][601][602][603] Apple offers comprehensive and transparent information about the CO2e, emissions, materials, and electrical usage concerning every product they currently produce or have sold in the past (and which they have enough data needed to produce the report), in their portfolio on their homepage. Allowing consumers to make informed purchasing decisions on the products they offer for sale.[604] In June 2009, Apple's iPhone 3GS was free of PVC, arsenic, and BFRs.[599][605][606] All Apple products now have mercury-free LED-backlit LCD displays, arsenic-free glass, and non-PVC cables. All Apple products have EPEAT Gold status and beat the latest Energy Star guidelines in each product's respective regulatory category.[599][607]

In November 2011, Apple was featured in Greenpeace's Guide to Greener Electronics, which ranks electronics manufacturers on sustainability, climate and energy policy, and how "green" their products are. The company ranked fourth of fifteen electronics companies (moving up five places from the previous year) with a score of 4.6/10.[608][609] Greenpeace praises Apple's sustainability, noting that the company exceeded its 70% global recycling goal in 2010. It continues to score well on the products rating with all Apple products now being free of PVC plastic and BFRs. However, the guide criticizes Apple on the Energy criteria for not seeking external verification of its greenhouse gas emissions data and for not setting out any targets to reduce emissions.[610] In January 2012, Apple requested that its cable maker, Volex, begin producing halogen-free USB and power cables.[611][612]

Green bonds

In February 2016, Apple issued a US$1.5 billion green bond (climate bond), the first ever of its kind by a U.S. tech company. The green bond proceeds are dedicated to the financing of environmental projects.[613][614]

Finance

Apple is the world's largest information technology company by revenue, the world's largest technology company by total assets,[615] and the world's second-largest mobile phone manufacturer after Samsung.[616][617]

In its fiscal year ending in September 2011, Apple Inc. reported a total of $108 billion in annual revenues—a significant increase from its 2010 revenues of $65 billion—and nearly $82 billion in cash reserves.[618] On March 19, 2012, Apple announced plans for a $2.65-per-share dividend beginning in fourth quarter of 2012, per approval by their board of directors.[619]

The company's worldwide annual revenue in 2013 totaled $170 billion.[620] In May 2013, Apple entered the top ten of the Fortune 500 list of companies for the first time, rising 11 places above its 2012 ranking to take the sixth position.[621] As of 2016, Apple has around US$234 billion of cash and marketable securities, of which 90% is located outside the United States for tax purposes.[622]

Apple amassed 65% of all profits made by the eight largest worldwide smartphone manufacturers in quarter one of 2014, according to a report by Canaccord Genuity. In the first quarter of 2015, the company garnered 92% of all earnings.[623]

On April 30, 2017, The Wall Street Journal reported that Apple had cash reserves of $250 billion,[624] officially confirmed by Apple as specifically $256.8 billion a few days later.[625]

As of August 3, 2018, Apple was the largest publicly traded corporation in the world by market capitalization. On August 2, 2018, Apple became the first publicly traded U.S. company to reach a $1 trillion market value.[18][19] Apple was ranked No. 4 on the 2018 Fortune 500 rankings of the largest United States corporations by total revenue.[626]

Tax practices

Apple has created subsidiaries in low-tax places such as Ireland, the Netherlands, Luxembourg, and the British Virgin Islands to cut the taxes it pays around the world. According to The New York Times, in the 1980s Apple was among the first tech companies to designate overseas salespeople in high-tax countries in a manner that allowed the company to sell on behalf of low-tax subsidiaries on other continents, sidestepping income taxes. In the late 1980s, Apple was a pioneer of an accounting technique known as the "Double Irish with a Dutch sandwich," which reduces taxes by routing profits through Irish subsidiaries and the Netherlands and then to the Caribbean.[647]

British Conservative Party Member of Parliament Charlie Elphicke published research on October 30, 2012,[648] which showed that some multinational companies, including Apple Inc., were making billions of pounds of profit in the UK, but were paying an effective tax rate to the UK Treasury of only 3 percent, well below standard corporation tax. He followed this research by calling on the Chancellor of the Exchequer George Osborne to force these multinationals, which also included Google and The Coca-Cola Company, to state the effective rate of tax they pay on their UK revenues. Elphicke also said that government contracts should be withheld from multinationals who do not pay their fair share of UK tax.[649]

Apple Inc. claims to be the single largest taxpayer to the Department of the Treasury of the United States of America with an effective tax rate of approximately of 26% as of the second quarter of the Apple fiscal year 2016.[650] In an interview with the German newspaper FAZ in October 2017, Tim Cook stated, that Apple is the biggest taxpayer worldwide.[651]

In 2015, Reuters reported that Apple had earnings abroad of $54.4 billion which were untaxed by the IRS of the United States. Under U.S. tax law governed by the IRC, corporations don't pay income tax on overseas profits unless the profits are repatriated into the United States and as such Apple argues that to benefit its shareholders it will leave it overseas until a repatriation holiday or comprehensive tax reform takes place in the United States.[652][653]

The European Commission, which imposed on Apple in 2016 a record tax fine annulled on July 15, 2020, by the European Court of Justice

On July 12, 2016 the Central Statistics Office of Ireland announced that 2015 Irish GDP had grown by 26.3%, and 2015 Irish GNP had grown by 18.7%.[654] The figures attracted international scorn, and were labelled by Nobel-prize winning economist, Paul Krugman, as leprechaun economics. It was not until 2018 that Irish economists could definitively prove that the 2015 growth was due to Apple restructuring its controversial double Irish subsidiaries (Apple Sales International), which Apple converted into a new Irish capital allowances for intangible assets tax scheme (expires in January 2020). The affair required the Central Bank of Ireland to create a new measure of Irish economic growth, Modified GNI* to replace Irish GDP, given the distortion of Apple's tax schemes. Irish GDP is 143% of Irish Modified GNI*.

On August 30, 2016, after a two-year investigation, the EU Competition Commissioner concluded Apple received "illegal State aid" from Ireland. The EU ordered Apple to pay 13 billion euros ($14.5 billion), plus interest, in unpaid Irish taxes for 2004–2014.[655] It is the largest tax fine in history.[656] The Commission found that Apple had benefited from a private Irish Revenue Commissioners tax ruling regarding its double Irish tax structure, Apple Sales International (ASI).[657] Instead of using two companies for its double Irish structure, Apple was given a ruling to split ASI into two internal "branches".[658] The Chancellor of Austria, Christian Kern, put this decision into perspective by stating that "every Viennese cafe, every sausage stand pays more tax in Austria than a multinational corporation".[659]

As of April 24, 2018, Apple agreed to start paying €13 billion in back taxes to the Irish government, the repayments will be held in an escrow account while Apple and the Irish government continue their appeals in EU courts.[660]

On July 15, 2020, the EU General Court annuls the European Commission’s decision in Apple State aid case: Apple will not have to repay €13 billion to Ireland.[661]

Board of directors

As of October 26, 2019 the following individuals sit on the board of Apple Inc.[662]

  • Arthur D. Levinson (chairman)
  • Tim Cook (executive director and CEO)
  • James A. Bell (non-executive director)
  • Al Gore (non-executive director)
  • Andrea Jung (non-executive director)
  • Ronald Sugar (non-executive director)
  • Susan Wagner (non-executive director)

Executive management

As of March 16, 2021 the management of Apple Inc. includes:[662]

  • Tim Cook (chief executive officer)
  • Jeff Williams (chief operating officer)
  • Luca Maestri (senior vice president and chief financial officer)
  • Katherine L. Adams (senior vice president and general counsel)
  • Eddy Cue (senior vice president – Internet Software and Services)
  • Craig Federighi (senior vice president – Software Engineering)
  • John Giannandrea (senior vice president – Machine Learning and AI Strategy)
  • Deirdre O'Brien (senior vice president – Retail + People)
  • John Ternus (senior vice president – Hardware Engineering)
  • Greg Josiwak (senior vice president – Worldwide Marketing)
  • Johny Srouji (senior vice president – Hardware Technologies)
  • Sabih Khan (senior vice president – Operations)
  • Lisa P. Jackson (vice president – Environment, Policy, and Social Initiatives)
  • Isabel Ge Mahe (vice president and managing director – Greater China)
  • Tor Myhren (vice president – Marketing Communications)
  • Adrian Perica (vice president – Corporate Development)

List of chief executives

  1. Michael Scott (1977–1981)
  2. Mike Markkula (1981–1983)
  3. John Sculley (1983–1993)
  4. Michael Spindler (1993–1996)
  5. Gil Amelio (1996–1997)
  6. Steve Jobs (1997–2011)
  7. Tim Cook (2011–present)

List of chairmen

The role of Chairman of the Board has not always been in use; notably, between 1981 to 1985, and 1997 to 2011.[663]

  1. Mike Markkula (1977–1981)
  2. Steve Jobs (1985)
  3. Mike Markkula (1985–1993); second term
  4. John Sculley (1993)
  5. Mike Markkula (1993–1997); third term
  6. Steve Jobs (2011); second term
  7. Arthur D. Levinson (2011– present)

Litigation

Apple has been a participant in various legal proceedings and claims since it began operation.[664] In particular, Apple is known for and promotes itself as actively and aggressively enforcing its intellectual property interests. Some litigation examples include Apple v. Samsung, Apple v. Microsoft, Motorola Mobility v. Apple Inc., and Apple Corps v. Apple Computer. Apple has also had to defend itself against charges on numerous occasions of violating intellectual property rights. Most have been dismissed in the courts as shell companies known as patent trolls, with no evidence of actual use of patents in question.[665] On December 21, 2016, Nokia announced that in the U.S. and Germany, it has filed a suit against Apple, claiming that the latter's products infringe on Nokia's patents.[666][667] Most recently, in November 2017, the United States International Trade Commission announced an investigation into allegations of patent infringement in regards to Apple's remote desktop technology; Aqua Connect, a company that builds remote desktop software, has claimed that Apple infringed on two of its patents.[668]

Privacy stance

Apple has a notable pro-privacy stance, actively making privacy-conscious features and settings part of its conferences, promotional campaigns, and public image.[669][670][671] With its iOS 8 mobile operating system in 2014, the company started encryption all contents of iOS devices through users' passcodes, making it impossible at the time for the company to provide customer data to law enforcement requests seeking such information.[672] With the popularity rise of cloud storage solutions, Apple began a technique in 2016 to do deep learning scans for facial data in photos on the user's local device and encrypting the content before uploading it to Apple's iCloud storage system.[673] It also introduced "differential privacy", a way to collect crowdsourced data from many users, while keeping individual users anonymous, in a system that Wired described as "trying to learn as much as possible about a group while learning as little as possible about any individual in it".[674] Users are explicitly asked if they want to participate, and can actively opt-in or opt-out.[675]

However, Apple aids law enforcement in criminal investigations by providing iCloud backups of users' devices,[676][677][678] and the company's commitment to privacy has been questioned by its efforts to promote biometric authentication technology in its newer iPhone models, which don't have the same level of constitutional privacy as a passcode in the United States.[679]

Charitable causes

Apple is a partner of (PRODUCT)RED, a fundraising campaign for AIDS charity. In November 2014, Apple arranged for all App Store revenue in a two-week period to go to the fundraiser,[680] generating more than US$20 million,[681][682] and in March 2017, it released an iPhone 7 with a red color finish.[683][684]

Apple contributes financially to fundraisers in times of natural disasters. In November 2012, it donated $2.5 million to the American Red Cross to aid relief efforts after Hurricane Sandy,[685] and in 2017 it donated $5 million to relief efforts for both Hurricane Irma and Hurricane Harvey,[686] as well as for the 2017 Central Mexico earthquake.[687] The company has also used its iTunes platform to encourage donations, including, but not limited to, help the American Red Cross in the aftermath of the 2010 Haiti earthquake,[688] followed by similar procedure in the aftermath of the 2011 Japan earthquake,[689] Typhoon Haiyan in the Philippines in November 2013,[690] and European migrant crisis in September 2015.[691] Apple emphasizes that it does not incur any processing or other fees for iTunes donations, sending 100% of the payments directly to relief efforts, though it also acknowledges that the Red Cross does not receive any personal information on the users donating and that the payments may not be tax deductible.[692]

On April 14, 2016, Apple and the World Wide Fund for Nature (WWF) announced that they have engaged in a partnership to, "help protect life on our planet." Apple released a special page in the iTunes App Store, Apps for Earth. In the arrangement, Apple has committed that through April 24, WWF will receive 100% of the proceeds from the applications participating in the App Store via both the purchases of any paid apps and the In-App Purchases. Apple and WWF's Apps for Earth campaign raised more than $8 million in total proceeds to support WWF's conservation work. WWF announced the results at WWDC 2016 in San Francisco.[693][694][695]

During the COVID-19 pandemic, Apple's CEO Cook announced that the company will be donating "millions" of masks to health workers in the United States and Europe.[696]

On January 13, 2021, Apple announced a $100 million "Racial Equity and Justice Initiative" to help combat institutional racism worldwide.[697]

Criticism and controversies

PRISM: a clandestine surveillance program under which the NSA collects user data from companies like Facebook and Apple.[698]

Apple has been criticized for alleged unethical business practices such as anti-competitive behavior, rash litigation,[699] dubious tax tactics, production methods involving the use of sweatshop labor,[700][701] customer service issues involving allegedly misleading warranties and insufficient data security, and its products' environmental footprint. Critics have claimed that Apple products combine stolen and/or purchased designs that Apple claims are its original creations.[702][703] It has been criticized for its alleged collaboration with the U.S. surveillance program PRISM.[citation needed] The company denied any collaboration.[704]

Apple's issues regarding music over the years include those with the European Union regarding iTunes,[705] trouble over updating the Spotify app on Apple devices[706] and collusion with record labels.[707]

Apple has faced scrutiny for its tax practices; this includes engaging in a Double Irish Arrangement with Ireland's government, in order to reduce the amount of taxes that the company paid between the years of 2004–2014.[708] A probe into Apple's tax-reduction methods in offshore havens, conducted in 2013, resulted in a 40-page memorandum, in which the U.S. Senate claimed that Apple had not paid corporate taxes for five years due to its deals with the Irish government and its subsidiaries.[709] Since then, all Double Irish activities were force-closed by the European Union (in 2014); additionally, in late August 2016, the EU ruled that Ireland was required to claw back $14.5b in Apple-owned funds, thus becoming the largest tax battle in history.[710]

In 2018–19, Apple faced criticism for its failure to approve NVIDIA web drivers for GPUs installed on legacy Mac Pro machines (up to mid 2012 5,1 running macOS Mojave 10.14). Without access to Apple-approved NVIDIA web drivers, Apple users faced replacing their NVIDIA cards with graphic cards produced by supported brands (such as the AMD Radeon), from a list of recommendations provided by Apple to its consumers.

In June 2019, Apple issued a recall for its 2015 MacBook Pro Retina 15" following reports of batteries catching fire. The recall affected 432,000 units, and Apple was criticized for the long waiting periods consumers experienced, sometimes extending up to 3 weeks for replacements to arrive; the company also did not provide alternative replacements or repair options.[711][712][713]

Ireland's Data Protection Commission also launched a privacy investigation to examine whether Apple complied with the EU's GDPR law following an investigation into how the company processes personal data with targeted ads on its platform.[714][715]

In July 2019, following a campaign by the "right to repair" movement, challenging Apple's tech repair restrictions on devices, the FTC held a workshop to establish the framework of a future nationwide Right to Repair rule. The movement argues Apple is preventing consumers from legitimately fixing their devices at local repair shops which is having a negative impact on consumers.[716][717][718]

The United States Department of Justice also began a review of Big Tech firms to establish whether they could be unlawfully stifling competition in a broad antitrust probe in 2019.[719][720]

In December 2019, a report found that the iPhone 11 Pro continues tracking location and collecting user data even after users have disabled location services. In response, an Apple engineer said the Location Services icon "appears for system services that do not have a switch in settings."[721]

In January 2020, US President Donald Trump and attorney general William P. Barr criticised Apple for refusing to unlock two iPhones of a Saudi national, Mohammed Saeed Alshamrani, who shot and killed three American sailors and injured eight others in the Naval Air Station Pensacola. The shooting was declared an "act of terrorism" by the FBI,[722] but Apple denied to crack the phones citing its data privacy policy.[723][724]

On March 16, 2020, France fined Apple €1.1 billion for colluding with two wholesalers to stifle competition and keep prices high by handicapping independent resellers. The arrangement created aligned prices for Apple products such as iPads and personal computers for about half the French retail market. According to the French regulators, the abuses occurred between 2005 and 2017 but were first discovered after a complaint by an independent reseller, eBizcuss, in 2012.[725]

On August 13, 2020, Epic Games, the maker of the popular game Fortnite, sued Apple and Google after its hugely popular video game was removed from Apple and Google’s App Store. The suits come after both Apple and Google blocked the game after it introduced a direct payment system, effectively shutting out the tech titans from collecting fees.[726] In September 2020 Epic Games founded the Coalition for App Fairness together with other thirteen companies, which aims for better conditions for the inclusion of apps in the app stores.[727] Later in December 2020, Facebook agreed to assist Epic in their legal game against Apple, planning to support the company by providing materials and documents to Epic. Facebook had, however, stated that the company will not participate directly with the lawsuit, although did commit to helping with the discovery of evidence relating to the trial of 2021. In the months prior to their agreement, Facebook had been dealing with feuds against Apple relating to the prices of paid apps as well as privacy rule changes.[728] Head of ad products for Facebook Dan Levy commented, saying that "this is not really about privacy for them, this is about an attack on personalized ads and the consequences it's going to have on small-business owners," commenting on the full-page ads placed by Facebook in various newspapers in December 2020.[729][730]

Apple Inc., shareholders increased pressure on the company to publicly commit “to respect freedom of expression as a human right”, upon which Apple committed to freedom of expression and information in its human rights policy document. It said that the policy is based on the guidelines of the United Nations on business and human rights, in early September 2020.[731]

On November 19, 2020, it was announced that Apple will be paying out $113 million related to lawsuits stemming from their iPhone's battery problems and subsequent performance slow-downs.[732] Apple continues to face litigation related to the performance throttling of iPhone 6 and 7 devices, an action that Apple argued was done in order to balance the functionality of the software with the impacts of a chemically aged battery.[733] On January 25, 2021, Apple was hit with another lawsuit from an Italian consumer group, with more groups to follow, despite the rationale for the throttling.[734]

On November 30, 2020, the Italian antitrust authority AGCM fined Apple $12 Million for misleading trade practices. AGCM stated that Apple's claims of iPhone's water resistance weren't true as the phones could only resist water up to 4 meters deep in ideal laboratory conditions and not in regular circumstances. The authority added that Apple provided no assistance to customers with water-damaged phones, which it said constituted an aggressive trade practice.[735]

See also

  • List of Apple Inc. media events
  • Pixar

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Bibliography

  • Price, Rob (1987). So Far: The First Ten Years of a Vision. Apple Computer. ISBN 978-1-55693-974-7.
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Further reading

  • Amelio, Gil; Simon, William L. (1999). On the Firing Line: My 500 Days at Apple. ISBN 978-0-88730-919-9. OCLC 41424094.
  • Carlton, Jim (October 21, 1998). Apple: The Inside Story of Intrigue, Egomania and Business Blunders. ISBN 978-0-88730-965-6. OCLC 1068545200.
  • Deutschman, Alan (2000). The Second Coming of Steve Jobs. Broadway. ISBN 978-0-7679-0432-2. OCLC 59470055.
  • Hertzfeld, Andy (2004). Revolution in the Valley: The Insanely Great Story of How the Mac Was Made. O'Reilly Books. ISBN 978-0-596-00719-5. OCLC 774133318.
  • Kunkel, Paul (1997). AppleDesign: The Work of the Apple Industrial Design Group. ISBN 978-1-888001-25-9. OCLC 450559301.
  • Lashinsky, Adam (2013). Inside Apple: How America's Most Admired—and Secretive—Company Really Works. ISBN 978-1-4555-1216-4. OCLC 984131988.
  • Levy, Steven (2000) [1994]. Insanely Great: The Life and Times of Macintosh, the Computer That Changed Everything. New York City: Penguin Books. ISBN 978-0-14-029177-3. OCLC 474924791.
  • Linzmayer, Owen (2004). Apple Confidential 2.0. No Starch Press. ISBN 978-1-59327-010-0. OCLC 921280642.CS1 maint: ref duplicates default (link)
  • Rose, Frank (1990). West of Eden: The End of Innocence at Apple Computer. Penguin Books. ISBN 978-0-14-009372-8. OCLC 924684399.
  • Sculley, John; Byrne, John A. (1990) [October 1, 1987]. Odyssey: Pepsi to Apple ... A journey of adventure, ideas and the future. Diane Pub Co. ISBN 978-0-7881-6949-6. OCLC 947796756.
  • Wozniak, Steve; Smith, Gina (2006). iWoz: From Computer Geek to Cult Icon: How I Invented the Personal Computer, Co-Founded Apple, and Had Fun Doing It. W. W. Norton & Company. ISBN 978-0-393-06143-7. OCLC 502898652.
  • Young, Jeffrey S. (1988). Steve Jobs, The Journey is the Reward. Lynx Books. ISBN 978-1-55802-378-9. OCLC 502695173.
  • Young, Jeffrey S.; Simon, William L. (2005). iCon Steve Jobs: The Greatest Second Act in the History of Business. John Wiley & Sons. ISBN 978-0-471-72083-6. OCLC 487439489.
  • O'Grady, Jason D. (2009). Apple Inc. ABC-CLIO. ISBN 978-0-313-36244-6.

External links

  • Official website
  • Business data for Apple Inc.:
    • Google Finance
    • Yahoo! Finance
    • SEC filings
  • Apple Inc. companies grouped at OpenCorporates
  • Geographic data related to Apple Inc. headquarters at OpenStreetMap